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Design Manual for the Lockport Street Business Corridor VILLAGE OF PLAINFIELD ILLINOIS DESIGN MANUAL FOR THE LOCKPORT STREET BUSINESS CORRIDOR Prepared by ARRIS Architects + Planners, P.C. 601 North Des Plaines Street Plainfield, Illinois 60544 August 7, 2000 Revised July 15, 2002 © Village of Plainfield Design Manual ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Village of Plainfield Richard A. Rock, President Trustees Stephen J. Calabrese John H. Cherry Michael Collins Kathy O’Connell Steven L. Rathbun Raymond Smolich Terry L. Burghard, Village Administrator Lawrence E. Vaupel, Former Economic Development Coordinator James F. Testin, Director of Community Development Jeffrey L. Durbin, Former Direct or of Community Development Plan Commissioners James Sobkoviak, Chairman Alan Anderson Marilyn Gehrke Larry Kachel Walter Manning Robert Schinderle Merrilee Eighner, Secretary Village of Plainfield Design Manual This Design Manual is intended to be utilized in conjunction with the “Master Plan and Streetscape Design Plan for Downto wn Plainfield” prepared by Teng & Associates, Inc. and dated August 7, 2000 Village of Plainfield Authors ARRIS Architects + Planners, P.C. 601 North DesPlaines Street Plainfield, Illinois 60544 Michael A. Lambert Principal Architect Thomas H. Flynn Staff Architect Table of Contents Design Manual i PURPOSE AND INTENT OF THE DESIGN GUIDELINES ..............II PLAINFIELD: ELEMENTS OF COMMUNITY CHARACTER ......1 Defined by Diversity................................................................................................................1 Character of the Historic Core...............................................................................................1 Creation of Design Guidelines................................................................................................3 New Development Districts for the Lo ckport Street Business Corridor.................................3 Summary of Development Districts.........................................................................................5 DEFINING THE HISTORIC URBAN CORE .................................................9 District Boundaries.................................................................................................................9 District Overview....................................................................................................................9 HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCKPORT STREET BUSINESS DISTRICT ....................................................................................................9 Early Business Development in Plainfield..............................................................................9 Lockport Street emerges as a Business Center.....................................................................10 First Business Buildings er ected on Lockport Street............................................................11 Early Architectural Character..............................................................................................11 Masonry Buildings in Plainfield...........................................................................................12 Fires Re-shape Business District..........................................................................................13 Lockport Street Business District at the End of the 19th Century........................................13 Streetcars, Automobiles & the 20th Century.........................................................................14 Historic Signage....................................................................................................................15 Open Space in the Downtown Area.......................................................................................16 Importance of Adjacent Residential Neighborhoods............................................................17 Downtown Development since 1975.....................................................................................17 Existing Character of the Historic Urban Core....................................................................18 Development Patterns...........................................................................................................18 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR THE HISTORIC URBAN CORE .......................................................................................23 Purpose of the Guidelines.....................................................................................................2 3 Objectives of the Guidelines..................................................................................................2 3 Compliance with the Guidelines...........................................................................................23 Table of Contents ii Village of Plainfield Preservation of the Original Character of the Site.......................................................24 Guideline : Maintain existing site development patterns...................................................24 Preservation of the Original Character of the Primary Façade(s)..............................25 Guideline: Maintain the original character of the façade.................................................25 Guideline : Preserve architectura lly significant components of historic commercial buildings............................................................................................................................25 Guideline: Align architectural elements..........................................................................30 Guideline: Incorporate pedestrian-oriented design elements at sidewalk level...............30 Guideline : Utilize storefront awnings a nd shutters appropriately....................................31 Guideline : Install appropriate building signage...............................................................32 Guideline: Utilize historically appropriate color schemes............................................35 Guideline: Preserve architecturally significan t components of historic institutional buildings. ……………………………………………………………………………..35 Guideline: Preserve architecturally significan t components of historic residential buildings. …………………………………………………………………………….37 Infill Development and Remodeling of Sec ondary Facades in the Historic Urban Core ……………………………………………………………………………………………………38 Guideline : Align architectur al elements in new construction.......................................38 Guideline: Respect rhythm of existing façades.............................................................38 Guideline : Respect the existing architectural character of the building and adjacent buildings. …………………………………………………………………………….39 Guideline : Utilize historically appropriate materials....................................................40 Guideline: Retain connection between public and private open space.........................40 Additions to Existing Buildings in the Historic Urban Core........................................41 Guideline: Respect and preserve hi storic architecture..................................................41 DEFINING THE TRANSITIONAL URBAN CORE ................................45 District Boundaries...............................................................................................................45 District Overview..................................................................................................................45 HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS OF THE TRANSITIONAL URBAN CORE .........................................................................45 Early Development................................................................................................................45 Impact of the Streetcar..........................................................................................................47 Development since 1925........................................................................................................4 7 Historic Signage....................................................................................................................48 Table of Contents Design Manual iii Residential Neighborhoods & Open Space...........................................................................48 Development since 1975........................................................................................................4 9 Existing Character of the Transitional Urban Core.............................................................49 Development Patterns...........................................................................................................50 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR THE TRANSITIONAL URBAN CORE .........................................................................55 Purpose of the Guidelines.....................................................................................................5 5 Objectives of the Guidelines..................................................................................................5 5 Compliance with the Guidelines...........................................................................................56 Preservation of the original character of the site.........................................................57 Guideline: Maintain existing site development patterns..............................................57 Preservation of the historic c haracter of primary façade(s).........................................58 Guideline: Maintain the original character of the façade..............................................58 Guideline: Preserve architecturally significant components of histor ic commercial and industrial buildings............................................................................................................58 Guideline: Align architectural elements.......................................................................63 Guideline: Incorporate pedestrian-oriented desi gn elements at sidewalk level............63 Guideline: Utilize storefront awnings and shutters appropriately................................64 Guideline: Install appropriate build ing and site signage...............................................65 Guideline: Utilize historically appropriate color schemes............................................68 Guideline: Preserve architectural ly significant components of historic residential buildings. ……………………………………………………………………………..68 Infill Development and Remodeling of Sec ondary Facades in the Transitional Urban Core.......................................................................................................................................69 Guideline: Align architectural elements in new construction........................................69 Guideline: Respect rhythm of existing façades..............................................................69 Guideline: Respect the existing architectural ch aracter of the build ing and adjacent buildings. ……………………………………………………………………………..70 Guideline: Design of Infill Single-Family and Multi-Family Residential Housing......71 Guideline: Utilize historically appropriate materials.....................................................72 Guideline: Retain connection between public and private open space..........................73 Additions to Existing Buildings in the Transitional Urban Core..................................74 Guideline: Respect and preserve hi storic architecture...................................................74 DEFINING THE EXPANDED URBAN CORE ............................................79 Table of Contents iv Village of Plainfield District Boundaries...............................................................................................................79 District Overview..................................................................................................................79 HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT PA TTERNS OF THE EXPANDED URBAN CORE ...................................................................................................................79 Early Development................................................................................................................79 Existing Character of the Expanded Urban Core.................................................................80 Vision for an Expanded Town Center...................................................................................80 NEW URBANISM AND THE LOCKPORT STREET CORRIDOR .......................................................................................................................................................81 Basic Principles of New Urbanism.......................................................................................81 Development Patterns...........................................................................................................81 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR THE EXPANDED URBAN CORE ....................................................................................85 Purpose of the Guidelines.....................................................................................................8 5 Objectives of the Guidelines..................................................................................................8 5 Compliance with the Guidelines...........................................................................................86 Establishment of Development Pa tterns in the Expanded Urban Core........................87 Guideline: Reinforce land development patterns for each sub-zone as suggested in the Master Land Plan for the Expanded Urban Core..............................................................87 New Commercial Buildings in the Expanded Urban Core...........................................91 Guideline: Align architectural elements in new construction........................................91 Guideline: Visible façades must be ar chitecturally designed........................................92 Guideline: Respect rhythm of historic façades..............................................................92 Interpretation of the arch itectural character of Downtown Plainfield.........................95 Guideline: Incorporate pedestrian-oriented desi gn elements at sidewalk level.............95 Guideline: Utilize architecturally significant design details f ound in the Historic Urban Core. …………………………………………………………………………….95 Guideline: Utilize storefront awnings and shutters appropriately.................................97 Guideline: Install appropriate build ing and site signage...............................................98 Guideline: Utilize historically appropriate color schemes..........................................100 Design of Single-Family and Multi-Family Residential Housing...............................104 Guideline: Continue the established character of historic residential architecture in Plainfield. ……………………………………………………………………………104 Table of Contents Design Manual v Guideline: Align architectural elements in new construction......................................104 Guideline: Preserve architecturally significan t components of historic residential buildings. …………………………………………………………………………...106 Guideline: Utilize historically appropriate materials...................................................106 Guideline: Establish connection between public and private open space....................107 APPENDIX A : EXISTING CONDITIONS ASSESSMENT & BUILDING IMPROVEMENT........................................................................................................................109 Philosophy of Building Preservation..................................................................................109 Assessing a Building............................................................................................................109 Literary Research............................................................................................................11 0 Level of Significance......................................................................................................110 Physical Investigation.....................................................................................................111 Developing an Improvement Plan.......................................................................................111 Level of Significance......................................................................................................111 Condition.........................................................................................................................112 Materials and Labor........................................................................................................112 Economics.......................................................................................................................112 Maintenance....................................................................................................................113 APPENDIX B : GUIDELINES FOR THE MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS............................................................................................................1 15 APPENDIX C : SELECTED DEFINITIONS....................................................................121 APPENDIX D: RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURA L STYLES & BUILDING TYPES COMMON TO PLAINFIELD, ILLINOIS.................................................................................127 APPENDIX E : SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SOURCES FOR ADDITIONAL READING...................................................................................................................................135 APPENDIX F: HISTORIC URBAN CORE BUILDI NG INVENTORY , APRIL 2000.139 Using This Manual vi Village of Plainfield Purpose and Intent of the Design Guidelines The purpose and intent of the Design Guidelines contained within this manual are to maintain the familiar architectural character and small town atmosphere that identifies Plainfield as a historic place while providi ng opportunities for new development and re-development within the Lockport Street Corridor. The balance between old and new will be the most critical challenge to be overcome when attempting to interweave the existing architectural character of historic buildings and areas with new construction in emerging or re-developing commercial and residential areas within the Lockport Street Corridor. Development standards must be applied uniformly to existing and new buildings to ensure a cohesive district that is recognizable as “Plainfield.” To that end, the Design Guidelines utilize standardized recommendations that have been implemented across the United States to protect, preserve, and enhance historic buildings and open spaces while permitting ample opportunity for creative and respectful re-development. The Design Guidelines were created based on national and local models and are consistent with design guidelines that have been adopted in communities surrounding Plainfield. For those areas or sites within the Village that retain a high level of historic integrity, the Design Guidelines suggest standards that are consistent with recognized historic preservation principles. Similarly, for those areas of the Village that retain less of a historic presence-- those areas in developmental transition , the Design Guidelines are less restrictive regarding historic preservation but provide for interpretive architectural solutions which will be sensitive to the most historic areas of the Lockport Street Corridor. Finally, in those areas of the Corridor where little or no historic presence exists, the guidelines provide suggestive design solutions for new buildings which will be sympathetic to the architectural mass, proportions, and design details of the buildings in the historic core of the Village. Using This Manual Design Manual vii How to use this Design Manual Overriding Principles are designated with the “” symbol which are followed by a series of Guidelines which support each specific overriding principle. Each guideline is followed by a series of Design Recommendations which ensure the proper appl ication of the guideline. Therefore, the User must (1) find the appropriate Overriding Principle(s) that pertain(s) to a project; (2) then determine which Guidelines apply to the Project; and (3) follow the Design Recommendations which support the applicable guideline(s). Note: More than one Overriding Principle and multiple Guidelines may apply to any Project. Design Manual Introduction Design Manual 1 Plainfield: Elements of Community Character Defined by Diversity As Will County’s Oldest Community, the Village of Plainfield consists of a diverse collection of buildings dating from its beginnings in 1834 to the present time. The business and residential structures throughout the Village are a reflection of the architectural, economic and social influences that affected the development of the community over the course of history. Because the community was not built as a single, integrated entity, Plainfield’s built environment cannot be neatly categorized as a single type or style of architecture or urban development pattern. The historic core of Plainfield is, developmentally, diverse in its architecture and patterns of land use. In fact, the 1995 Vill age of Plainfield Comprehensive Plan (prepared by Lane Kendig, Inc.) recognized the diversity of character throughout the village: “(Plainfield) residents talk about small town atmosphere. As one drives through central Plainfield, one characteristic that becomes obvious is the community’s diversity. The Village’s slow evolution over the past decades has led to a rich mix of use, scale, height and parcel size. Diversity is part of the Village character and a strong asset.” Therefore, in order to continue the small town atmosphere of Plainfield, diversity--not homogeneity--must be the basic element of all new development and re-development in the historic core of the Village, which includes the expanded Lockport Street Business Corridor. Furthermore, to maintain continuity between old and new, the diversity of development must be rooted in the distinct patte rns of architecture and land use already established in the historic core of the village. Character of the Historic Core The historic core of Plainfield is comprised of a linear commercial district bounded by distinct residential neighborhoods. The Central Business District of Plainfield, or “downtown,” is an important part of the overall character of the community. Consisting of a substantially intact building stock dating from the mid 19th and early 20th century, downtown Plainfield has retained essential attributes of a Diversity as an Asset Linear Commercial District Introduction 2 Village of Plainfield traditional turn-of-the-19th-century business district. The Lockport Street Business Corridor is that area of the Village of Plainfield that loosely surrounds the linear commercial district. Stretching from Division Street on t he east to U.S Route 30 on the west, the business corridor extends approximately one block south and two blocks north of Lockport Street. Individual buildings play an important role in establishing the character of the downtown business district in Plainfield. Building scale, proportion, height, rooflines, materials, windows, doors, pattern, signage, color, awnings and architectural details play an important part in the successful design of the downtown as a whole. However, the character of downtown Plainfield is established, also, by the rhythm of the buildings when viewed collectively. Building placement on lots, relationships to property boundaries, and development of public and private open space are essential elements of downtown Plainfield’s built environment. Furthermore, the patterns of land use and architecture vary from block to block along Lockport Street. Similarly, those patterns of development vary north and south of Lockport Street as the area transitions from commercial-residential uses to strictly residential uses. Those patterns are marked by a change in building type, size, and materials as well as lot coverage and landscape. To illustrate, consider the 500 Block of Lockport Street, which has developed with a solid, architectural presence. Similarly, the north side of the 400 Block of Lockport Street has developed with an equal presence--albeit a less structured appearance. When viewed together, the two blocks establish a strong sense of place that is identifiable as “downtown Plainf ield.” Yet, the character of each block--and the individual buildings themselves--is quite diverse. Similarly, the surrounding residential neighborhoods contain a rich mix of architectural styles and building types. Small cottages, large residences, small yards and large yards intermingle freely throughout the historic core. It is this diversity that creates a strong sense of place that sets Plainfield apart from surrounding communities. Furthermore, it is that sense of place that defines Plainfie ld as a distinct community and not as another “cookie-cutter” town that looks like so many others across America. It is that distinctiveness that yields “small town atmosphere” and maintains Plainfield as Lockport Street Business Corridor Defined Character of Downtown Business District Patterns of Land Use Introduction Design Manual 3 an authentic community--real place to live, work and worship. As stated in the 1995 Comprehensive Plan for the Village of Plainfield: “Diversity is good for aesthetics (and)… (d)iversity is critical for preserving Plainfield’s small town character.” Creation of Design Guidelines In 1999, the Village Board of Plainfield authorized the creat ion of Design Guidelines for the continued development and re-development of the historic core of Plainfield, in general, and the Lockport Street Business Corridor, in particular. The Design Manual, including the Design Guidelines, has been prepared in conjunction with a Master Development Plan, which is based on the successful entry for the 1996 New Town Center Design Competition. ARRIS Architects + Planners, P.C. of Plainfield prepared the Design Guidelines; Teng & Associates, Inc. of Chicago prepared the Master Development Plan. Numerous planning studies, which have been prepared for the Village of Plainfield, were consulted in the preparation of the Design Manual and Master Development Plan. In particular, the 1995 Comprehensive Plan provided for the coherent evaluations of the existing community character. Furthermore, the 1995 Plan suggested an appropriate direction for the revitalization of downtown Plainfield: “Infill development shall enhance the low intensity urban character of the Village’s historic portions. This form of development should become the model for new development.” New Development Districts for the Lockport Street Business Corridor Based on the planning analyses and development proposals prepared by Teng & Associates, Inc., three distinct development districts emerged along the Lockport Street Business Corridor. However, the boundaries of each district overlap the other, allowing for interpretation of design issues and development goals where the districts interface with one another. This allowance for interpretation is not intended to “muddy the waters” but to permit the seamless development of the entire Lockport Street Business Corridor. Specific development issues and goals define each district. At the same time, Design Guidelines Created Development Districts Defined Introduction 4 Village of Plainfield however, the three districts are dependent on continuing and interpreting the established urban and architectural character of the historic core of the Village of Plainfield. Lockport Street Development Districts Introduction Design Manual 5 Summary of Development Districts The three development districts within the Lockport Street Business Corridor are identified as follows: Historic Urban Core: Approximate Boundaries : • From a beginning point at the intersection of Division and Main Streets southwesterly along Main Street to Des Plaines Street, then south to the south property line of 802 Des Plaines Street, then west to Fox River Street (extended), then south to Chicago Street, then east to Division Street (including the intersection of Route 30 and Division St.), then north to Main Street. Existing Characteristics : • Incorporates the majority of the architecturally and historically significant commercial structures in the existing downtown area • Development patterns range from full lot coverage to free-standing buildings on large, landscaped lots as well as surface parking lots • Architecture includes wood and masonry commercial structures; wood institutional buildings; masonry civic buildings; and wood residences Development Goals: • Retain the existing architectural character and urban development patterns • Enhance the retail focus of the area • Encourage the restoration of historically significant structures • Preserve the integrity of the historic architectural features of individual buildings • Minimize alterations and new construction that weaken the historic integrity of individual buildings and of the area at large • Preserve the area as a place of intense pedestrian activity • Enhance streetscape features • Provide additional vehicle parking facilities Introduction 6 Village of Plainfield Transitional Urban Core: Approximate Boundaries : • From a beginning point at the intersection of Main and Des Plaines Streets due west to Old Van Dyke Road, then south along Old Van Dyke Road to Lockport Street, then west to the west property line of the Village Hall Site, then south to the north property line of Wallin Park, then east to the EJ&E tracks, then north to Chicago Street (extended), then east to Fox River Street, then north to the south property line of 802 Des Plaines Street, then east to Des Plaines Street, then north to Main Street. Existing Characteristics : • Incorporates architecturally and historically significant commercial structures along Lockport Street • Development patterns range from full lot coverage to free-standing buildings on large, landscaped lots as well as surface parking lots • Architecture includes wood and masonry commercial structures; masonry industrial buildings; and wood residences Development Goals: • Retain the existing architectural character and urban development patterns where practical • Develop the area as a recognizable and viable commercial and residential district • Encourage the restoration of historically significant structures • Minimize alterations that weaken the historic integrity of individual buildings and of the area at large • Encourage infill development and redevelopment consistent with the architectural character and land use patterns of the Historic Urban Core • Encourage new development that respects, enhances or re-interprets the visual character of the area • Improve the retail shopping and commercial office environment • Provide additional residential housing opportunities • Increase density of residential development • Develop the Du Page River as a publicly-accessible amenity • Establish the area as a place of intense pedestrian activity • Provide additional vehicle parking facilities Introduction Design Manual 7 Expanded Urban Core: Approximate Boundaries : • From a beginning point at the intersection of Old Van Dyke Road and Lockport Street, north along Old Van Dyke Road approximately 800’-0” north of Lockport Street, then west to a boundary approximately 650’-0” west of U.S. Route 30, then south to Commercial Street (extended), then east/northeasterly along Ottawa Street to New Van Dyke Road, then east along the north property line of Wallin Park to the west property line of the Village Hall site, then north to Lockport Street, then east to Old Van Dyke Road. Existing Characteristics : • Development patterns incorporate large tracts of vacant land as well as a few established commercial uses • Architecture includes wood, masonry and pre-engineered commercial structures; masonry commercial buildings; and wood residences • Incorporates the area defined for the New Town Center Design Competition Development Goals: • Encourage development and redevelopment consistent with both the architectural character of the Historic Urban Core and contemporary retail standards • Improve the retail shopping and commercial office environment • Provide additional residential housing opportunities • Attract new business ventures that will increase pedestrian traffic in the Lockport Street corridor • Provide new vehicle parking facilities • Eliminate heavy thru-traffic in the Lockport Street corridor • Realize development recommendations identified in the 1995 Comprehensive Plan and the 1996 New Town Center Design Competition Historic Urban Core 8 Village of Plainfield Historic Urban Core Design Manual 9 Defining the Historic Urban Core District Boundaries The Historic Urban Core is defined as that area with a point of beginning at the intersection of Division and Main Streets southwesterly along Main Street to Des Plaines Street, then south to the south property line of 802 Des Plaines Street, then west to Fox River Street (extended), then south to Chicago Street, then east to Division Street (including the intersection of Route 30 and Division St.), then north to Main Street. District Overview The Historic Urban Core is one of the most venerated areas in the Plainfield community. The commercial architecture of the late Victorian period that lines Lockport Street combined with historic churches and wood-framed residences along adjacent streets reinforces the traditional small town image that is attractive to many Plainfield residents. As an authentic downtown area--one of a handful remaining in Will County--the development patterns and architecture combine to establish both a strong sense of place and a framework for continued development within Plainfield’s business district. The Historic Urban Core is comprised of many different building types and construction materials. The variety of architectural expression underscores the evolutionary proc ess associated with the creation of an authentic community. However, the sensitivity to common design themes and human scale creates the overall impression that downtown Plainfield is a singular expression of place. Historic Development of the Lockport Street Business District Early Business Development in Plainfield The genesis of Lockport Street as the commercial center of the Village of Plainfield can be traced to the middle of the nineteenth century. Prior to 1845, Lockport Street demarcated the boundary between north and south Plainfield. The road District Boundaries Designated District Overview Early Business in Plainfield Historic Urban Core 10 Village of Plainfield was a dirt thoroughfare that was largely undeveloped except for a few houses and a few early businesses clustered near Des Plaines Street. At that time, the or iginal 13-block Village (“south Plainfield”) was served by businesses and industry near the intersection of “The Joliet Road” and Commercial Street. By the mid-1840s, additional businesses were becoming established on Des Plaines Street and scattered along the streets surrounding the Village Green. Squire Levi Arnold’s Addition to the Village (“north Plainfield”) was served by a thriving commercial district, which was interspersed amongst the residences along Main Street. The two areas of the community were so distinct that both north and south Plainfield maintained their own school districts. After 1848, when the Illinois & Michigan Canal opened, “The Lockport Road,” as it was commonly referred, became an increasingly important economic location. The roadway served as a major commerce route between the farms and communities west of the Village of Plainfield and the canal landing at Lockport. Therefore, enterprising businessmen devised a plan to move their business operations to the center of the community where they could reap the most advantage of economic benefits afforded along the Lockport Road. Lockport Street emerges as a Business Center The first significant development that began shaping the Lockport Street business district was not even business related. In the 1850s, four congregations erected new church buildings along Lockp ort Street: the Congregationalists (1850), the Methodists (ca. 1852), the Evangelicals (1855), and the Baptists (1856). The central location of each house of worship was probably im portant to meet each congregation’s goal of serving the entire Plainfield community. Architecturally, these buildings reflected the general character of the Village at that time. The wood-framed buildings were imposing Greek Revival or Gothic Revival edifices rising above the dirt roads and streets. Several concurrent events established the impetus for the development of Lockport Street as a business corridor about the time of the Civil War (1861 – 1865). Main Street and Commercial Street Importance of Lockport Street as Business Center Houses of Worship Shape Lockport Street Historic Urban Core Design Manual 11 The Plainfield community continued to grow and build despite a shortage of money during the war effort. With an influx of new people in the Village, a centralized business district, which would be easily accessible to all residents, was desirable. Finally, property owners alon g Lockport Street between Division Stre et and Fox River Streets began to subdivide their property into business lots. First Business Buildings erected on Lockport Street In response to the demand and the opportunity, enterprising businessmen in the community began locating their entire businesses--including their buildings--to Lockport Street. George Bennett, a local building mover, placed existing wood-framed buildings on every other lot. The remaining lots, between the existing buildings, required that only a floor, roof and front and rear walls be constructed to establish a place of business. In one year, six buildings were moved from other locations around the Village to the north side of Lockport Street between Illinois and Des Plaines Streets. The west end of the south side of the block developed in a similar fashion albeit at a slower pace. Within a short time, the centra l business district was established and flourishing. The business district stretched along Lockport Street from Fox River Street on the west to Division Street on the east. Additionally, businesses such as a livery stable, a blacksmith and the Central Hotel lined Des Plaines Street between Lockport Street and the Village Green. The greatest concentration of businesses was located on Lockport Street between Des Plaines and Illinois Streets. Early Architectural Character The business buildings consisted of wood-framed buildings of all shapes and sizes. The buildings were one, one-and-one-half, and two stories in height. Most of the re-located buildings retained their gabled facades while the infill structures were most commonly false-fronted buildings with horizontal, wood cornices. However, the first fl oors of the former residences were remodeled into storefronts to pr ovide merchandise display windows. The result of the first Buildings Moved to Lockport Street Early Wood Commercial Buildings Historic Urban Core 12 Village of Plainfield floor remodelings was facades, typically three bays wide and nearly 80% glass. Fixed, projecting awnings of wood and metal were most common. Wood plank sidewalks at floor level were raised on limestone foundations approximately 24 inches above the dirt roadbed. About 1867, the Met hodist congregation moved from their Lockport Street church to a new limestone building one block south. The old building, which sat back from the street, and property were sold and subdivided. The former wood church building was moved closer to the street and converted to a business on the first floor and social hall on the second floor. In 1868, the Universalists erected a new, wood-framed building east of the Congregational church. Numerous wood-framed, business structures were erected throughout the 1860s. Also during that time, several wood-framed residences were converted to businesses, and the main floors were remodeled to incorporate retail storefronts. The last—and most ornate— wood-framed, commercial building to be built on Lockport Street was erected on the northwest corner of Lockport and Illinois Streets in 1869. Masonry Buildings in Plainfield The first masonry business buildings along Lockport Street were erected after 1865. About 1867, a two-story limestone building was erected on the north side of Lockport from stone quarried northeast of Plainfield. Two brick buildings, each two stories, were constructed on the north side of Lockport Street about 1875 and 1876. The first brick building on the south side of the street, a one-story structure, was not erected until 1882 or 1883. Four additional masonry structures—including the Opera House—were built by 1898. With the exception of the two-story Opera House, the masonry buildings on the south side of the street were only one-story in height. With advances in and the availability of new construction materials, the post 1870 masonry buildings were noticeably different. While the earlier structures were primarily residential in appearance and unrelated to each other architecturally, the masonry buildings introduced a new commercial architectural character to Lockport Street. Common design themes began to integrate the buildi ngs with one another. Strong horizontal relationships from one building to the next identified first and second floors as well as common Early Masonry Commercial Buildings Common Design Elements Historic Urban Core Design Manual 13 rooflines. The introduction of cast iron storefronts permitted the use of larger display windows and more glass than ever before. Operable, canvas awnings shaded the large expanses of glass and protected customer s from both sun and inclement weather. Stamped metal cornices, although not identical, completed the reinforcement of uniform materials and design at the horizontal parapets of the common rooflines. Although a new architectural character was introduced to Lockport Street, the wood plank sidewalks, which were raised above the dirt roadbed, persisted. The 500 Block of Lockport Street was a hard landscape, devoid of trees or vegetation. However, the adjoining blocks and side streets were lush with wide parkways and majestic canopy trees. Fires Re-shape Business District Several destructive fires between 1881 and 1898 leveled most of the wood-framed businesses along Lockport Street and transformed the architectural character of the business district. The Fire of 1881 destroyed numerous businesses on the south side of the street. Nonetheless, most of the buildings were reconstructed of wood. On December 29, 1891, a fire consumed fourteen of the seventeen businesses on the north side of Lockport Street. Although only the two sidewalls of the limestone build ing remained, the other two masonry buildings as well as one wood-framed building, survived. The last significant fire began in February of 1898 and destroyed five masonry structures and the businesses within, which includ ed the Opera House, the Post Office and a bank. Following the 1898 fire, many of the remaining wood buildings were razed and replaced with masonry structures. Lockport Street Business District at the End of the 19th Century By the late 1890s, the character of downtown Plainfield had become well established. From Division Street to Illinois Street, the properties consisted, primarily, of churches with a few residences and small businesses. From Illinois Street to Des Plaines Street, the majority of the properties consisted of masonry commercial buildings, one and two stories in height. From Des Plaines Street to Fox River St reet, the properties were largely industrial and related to the transportation industry. West of Fox Early Streetscape Fires Alter Downtown Character Historic Urban Core 14 Village of Plainfield River Street, the properties consisted mostly of residences and vacant lots. With the closing of the nineteenth century, public util ities were introduced throughout the Village. Gas streetlights first appeared in the downtown area. The south side of Lockport Street between Des Plaines Street and Fox River Street became increasingly more industrial as the principal location of utility offices, storage yards and warehouses. An early machine shop, which was built in 1894, was constructed with tim bers from the Old Red Mill (ca. 1835), which was dismantled that year. Other buildings on the block included the Village Hall (1897), Water Tower (1895) and Fire Station (1898) as well as a few businesses. Streetcars, Automobiles & the 20th Century With the introduction of the Aurora, Plainfield and Joliet Railway, a streetcar line, two significant developments altered the character of the downtown area. First, the railway company constructed a streetcar barn near the DuPage River at the far west end of Lockport Street. Secondly, the railway company established a twenty-acre entertainment and resort, known as Electric Park, at the DuPage River in 1904. As the era of the automobile dawned, the Lockport Street business district was transformed. In 1910, a second machine shop was erected on Lockport Street between Des Plaines and Fox River Streets. With the automobile, roads were improved and the first, paved transcontinental roadway, the Lincoln Highway (1913), was routed through downtown Plainfield . The increased traffic through the Lockport Street business district led to the establishment of several buildings and spurred the redevelopment of the Corke Building in 1912. The Plainfield State Bank erected a new building at the corner of Lockport and Illinois Streets in 1915. The concrete-paved section of the Lincoln Highway through Plainfield was completed in 1921 and, because the roadbed was raised, eliminated the high curb along Lockport Street. Several curbside gasoline stations lined Lockport Street in the downtown area. Eventually, six stations operated in the Lockport Street business corridor. Of the six stations, the Standard Oil Gas Station (1928) at the corner of Lockport and Des Plaines Streets was the most architecturally noteworthy. Industrial Uses in Downtown Transportation Influences on Development Historic Urban Core Design Manual 15 In 1941, the Village of Plainfield Free Public Library (est. 1926) built a small Georgian Revival bu ilding on Illinois Street. In 1959, the Plainfield National Bank (formerly Plainfield State Bank) remodeled its bu ilding with the construction of a new wing and the installation of a modern façade over the historic storefront. Also, about that time, the exterior of the Railoc Manufacturing Company building (formerly the Aurora, Plainfield and Joliet streetcar barn) was modernized. Throughout the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, numerous stor efronts in the Lockport Street busin ess district were remodeled in keeping with the tenor of the times. Additionally, several architecturally unremarkable buildings were constructed in the downtown area. Historic Signage Advertisement has always been a part of the downtown business environment. In the early years of Lockport Street’s development, signage typically consisted of flat signs with hand-painted lettering. The signs either projected over the sidewalk from the face of the building or were attached to the fixed canopies above the sidewalk or at the building cornice. Simple, iconographic signs were not uncommon at this time. A plow perched above the cornice might identify an implement store while a chair placed on the gable ridge might identify a furniture maker and undertaker. Many buildings erec ted after the Civil War were emblazoned with the original builder’s name or initials or a building name. The engraved identification was often incorporated below the cornice or above windows as part of the lintel or window hood detail. As operable awnings became more popular after the Civil War, store names or types of merchandise were often painted on the awning flap or on the awning face (although this seems to have been a rare occurrence in Plainfield). Also, as large, plate glass windows became more common, painted window signage began to appear on the storefront windows and doors. Where businesses were located on upper floors, signage was limited, generally, to the upper windows and at the stairway door. Painted, wall-mounted signs and iconographic signage remained popular throughout the nineteenth century. Early Signage Inclusion of Builders’ Names on Buildings Historic Signage and Awnings Historic Urban Core 16 Village of Plainfield A few examples of exterior, painted wall advertisements, which promoted tobacco, chewing gum or a local store, existed in the downtown area. The location of such signs apparently was limited to the west facades of buildings along the 500 Block of Lockport Street. Early in the twentieth century, electric signs appeared inside the windows of some businesses on Lockport Street. Although no photos of the signs exist, historical examples of the period would suggest that the signs might have been similar to small theater marquees with changeable letters with, perhaps, small light bulbs encircling the perimeter. One of the first was installed by Mr. Corke and proclaimed his confectionary store as “Lincoln Highway Headquarters.” By the early 1940s, many businesses along Lockport Street were utilizing electric neon signs t hat projected from the second floor of the street facades and over the sidewalk and operable awnings. In the evening, neon signs cast a soft glow throughout the downtown. By the 1960s, few of the neon signs remained, and internally-illuminated, projecting signs became increasingly popular. In the 1980s, the use of internally-illuminated signs were being discouraged in favor of more historically sensitive, non-illuminated signs. However, by the end of the decade, neon beer signs re-appeared in some store windows. By the mid-1990s, other neon images began to fill more storefront windows. Open Space in th e Downtown Area Open space has been a time-honored element in the downtown area of Plainfield. Although the block of Lockport Street between Des Plaines and Illinois Streets developed from lot lin e-to-lot line, the remainder of the downtown area developed in a manner that retained landscaped yards, tr ee-lined streets, and open space. The landscaped parkways and open space provided visual relief from the built environment as well as maintained a quaint, “small town” atmosphere. Additionally, these small pockets of greenspace extended the peaceful effect of the Village Green into the downtown retail environment and provide a place for public entertainment and gathering. Certainly, the largest open space ever established in the downtown area was the privately-operated, Electric Park Exterior Wall Advertisement 20th Century Signage Historic Open Space Historic Urban Core Design Manual 17 resort along the banks of the Du Page River. Many of the tree-lined parkways have been destroyed to provide wider streets and parking areas suitable for our vehicle-oriented lifesty le. Still, since the early 1980s, those small oases that have remained contribute to the success of town festivals and events as well as the pleasant shopping environment. With increased pressure for redevelopment, these small spaces are disappearing and are being replaced with parking lots and driveways, new buildings or building additions, expansive concrete sidewalks, or uninteresting outdoor patios. Importance of Adjacent Residential Neighborhoods As the business district developed, so did the adjacent residential neighborhoods. Unlike many communities, which grew outward from a central business district, Plainfield grew inward: away from the earlier, north and south business districts and merged towards a central commercial area. Therefore, the Lockport Street business district developed as a linear commercial area bounded by and with little expansion into the residential neighborhoods. The residences immediately north and south of the Lockport Street business district have been an important and integral element of the district’s character. Downtown Development since 1975 In 1975, the Plainfield National Bank expanded and remodeled its Lockport Street façade. The first significant redevelopment effort in the Lockport Street business corridor was initiated in 1977. At that time, the abandoned St. Mary Immaculate (formerly Universalist) church building along with three residences and a small medical office were renovated to create The Meeting Place. Named for the one-time meeting place of the two longest paved highways in the world, the retail complex included numerous shops, a bakery, and The Sanctuary restaurant. A brick wall with iron gates reminiscent of Electric Park surrounded the complex. Several buildings were renovated or constructed through the end of the decade. In 1984, the Standard Oil Gas Station was placed on the National Register of Character of Historic Streetscape Relationship with Neighborhoods Recent Development Historic Urban Core 18 Village of Plainfield Historic Places and, later, was renovated for use as an office complex. From the mid-1980s through the end of the 20th century, numerous buildings have been renovated with respect to their original desig n. A former livery stable and automotive repair business has been converted to an interior decorators’ showroom. Three mid-nineteenth century residences, individually, have been converted to a restaurant, an architect’s office, and a day spa. A former machine shop has been converted to retail and office space. Following an explosive fire in 1996 that destroyed a 1940s era automobile dealership, The Village Center, a two-story, mixed-use retail and office complex, was built on a lot at Lockport and Des Plaines Streets and was completed in 1998. Existing Character of the Historic Urban Core With the exception of the 500 Block and portions of the 600 Block of Lockport Street, the character of the Historic Urban Core consists, primarily, of free-standing structures on landscaped parcels. Architecturally, the buildings are diverse in style, size and lot placement. Much of the re-development that has occurred since 1975 is not sensitive to the historic development patterns of Lockpor t Street or the architectural character of the individual buildings themselves. Development Patterns The key principles that define the development patterns of the Historic Urban Core are: 400 Block of Lockport Street and streets surrounding the Lockport Street Corridor are dominated by free-standing buildings; large open spaces (private and public); and significant areas of landscaping between structures 500 and 600 Blocks of Lockport Street are dominated by structures built adjacent to the public sidewalk and the full width of their lot; landscaping is confined primarily to the public right-of-way streetscape improvements Converted residences along Lockport Street maintain their historic relationship to the street Character of Modern Do wntown Plainfield Key Development Patterns Historic Urban Core Design Manual 19 The Lockport Street Commercial District is composed of numerous building types. Some of t he building types are characteristic of t he historic period of development (1845 – 1925) while others are modern building types that detract from the historic atmosphere of the central business district. Commercial Architecture The principal commercial building types that exist currently in the Historic Urban Core are: Historic Commercial – generally, these buildings are more than 90 years old. Constructed of masonry or wood, these buildings are 1-2 stories in height. Current occupations include retail stores, restaurants, professional offices and apartments. Infill Commercial – generally, these buildings are less than 30 years old. Constructed of masonry, these buildings are typically 2 stories in height. Current occupations include retail stores, professional offices and apartments. Most do not contribute to the character of the Historic Urban Core. Religious – generally, these buildings are more than 130 years old. Constructed of wood or limestone, these bui ldings are 1-2 stories in height. Current occupations continue as religious facilities although one building has been converted to a restaurant. Historic Industrial – generally, these buildings are more than 50 years old. Constructed of wood, these buildings are 2 stories in height. Current occupations include professional offices and apartments. Infill Industrial – generally, these buildings are less than 50 years old. Constructed of masonry, these buildings are typically 1-2 stories in height. Current occupations include warehousing or are vacant. Most do not contribute to t he character of the Historic Urban Core. Professional Offices – generally, these buildings are less than 50 years old. Constr ucted of masonry, these buildings are 1 story in height. Current occupations include professional office s. Most do not contribute to the character of the Historic Urban Core. Drive-thru Banking Facilities – generally, these buildings are less than 50 years old. Constructed of masonry, these buildings are typically one story in height. Current occupations include retail stores, Existing Commercial Building Types Historic Urban Core 20 Village of Plainfield restaurants and professional offices. Most do not contribute to the character of the Historic Urban Core. Civic and Public Buildings – generally, these buildings are less than 60 years old. Constructed of masonry, these buildings are 1.5 –2 stories in height. Current occupations include library services and fire protection services. Most do not contribute to t he character of the Historic Urban Core. Residential Conversions – generally, these buildings are more than 80 years old. Constructed of wood or masonry, these buildings are 2 stories in height. Current occupations include retail stores, restaurants, professional offices and apartments. Residential Architecture According to a 1994 architectural survey completed by The Urbana Group for the Village of Plainfield, the typical residential building styles and types that exist currently in the Historic Urban Core are (see also Appendix D): Residential Architectural Styles Greek Revival: (circa 1825 –1860). Gabled or hipped roof of low pitch; cornice line and porch roofs emphasized with a wide band of trim; façade corners sometimes identified by a corner board; front door typically surrounded by narrow sidelights and a re ctangular line of transom lights above; frequently found with porches, either entry or full façade. Gothic Revival: (circa 1840 –1880). Steeply pitched roof, usually with steep cross gables; gables commonly have decorated vergeboards (bargeboards); windows commonly extend into the gables, frequently having pointed-arch (Gothic) shape; one story porch usually present. Italianate: (circa 1840 - 1885). Two or three stories; low-pitched roof, usually hipped, with widely overhanging eaves having decorative brackets beneath; tall, narrow windows, commonly arched or curved above; windows frequently with elaborate hood molds; can have square cupola or tower; small porches may be present; sits prominently above grade on a limestone foundation. Second Empire: (circa 1860-1890). Distinctive Mans ard roof; dormer windows may be present on the steep lower slope of the roof; molded Existing Commercial Building Types (cont.) Historic Residential Architecture Styles & Types Historic Urban Core Design Manual 21 cornices bound the upper and lower edge of the steep roof slope; widely overhanging eaves having decorative brackets; iron creating common at main and secondary rooflines; may be combined with Gothic Revival or Italianate details; sits prominently above grade on a limestone foundation. Shingle Style: (circa 1880-1900). Wall cladding (most times only second story) and roof cladding of continuous wood shingles; shingled walls without interruption at corners; asymmetrical facades with irregular, steeply-pitched roof line; porches and dormers are common; windows may be varied and are sometimes recessed at attic gables; sits prominently above grade on a limestone foundation. Residential Architectural Types Gabled Ell: Intersecting gable roof and L-shape floor plan, ridgelines of both roofs must be the same height; façade comprises a gable end and a perpendicular side wing of varying dimension; entrance is usually in the wing, sheltered by a porch; one, one-and-one-half, or two stories. Gable Front: Gable or gambrel roof oriented to face street; entrance in gable or gambrel end; one to two-and-one-half stories; side elevation dormers often enlarge space in half-story. Side Hall Plan: Two rooms deep and one room wide with sidehall containing a staircase; entrance located to far left or right; gable, gambrel, or low hip roof; one to two-and-one-half stories. Upright and Wing: Gable front (upright element) with perpendicular side wing; side wing half to one full-story lower in height than upright; T or L-shape floor plan; perpendicular orientation; gable roof; façade entrance located in gable end or side wing, often sheltered by a porch. Historic Residential Architecture Styles & Types (cont.) Historic Urban Core 22 Village of Plainfield Historic Urban Core Design Manual 23 Architectural Design Guidelines for the Historic Urban Core Purpose of the Guidelines The Village of Plainfield has extended a special commitment to the visual quality of the Lockport Street Business Corridor. These guidelines--and the design manual of which they are part--are intended to put in one place an explanation of t he expected design standards when publi c or private development is planned in the downtown area. The guidelines that follow are to be used as a design tool and to enable meaningful dialogue between developers, designers and community representatives regarding the appropriateness of specific design proposals. The guidelines indicate the design elements that may be present in an architecturally compatible downtown building and focus attention on those elements that will encourage a pedestrian-friendly atmosphere. Development in the Historic Urban Core must be especially sensitive to issues of compatibility. Objectives of the Guidelines The guidelines for development within the Historic Urban Core are intended to: • Retain the existing architectural character and urban development patterns • Enhance the retail focus of the area • Encourage the restoration of historically significant structures • Preserve the integrity of the historic architectural features of individual buildings • Minimize alterations and new construction that weaken the historic integrity of individual buildings and of the area at large • Preserve the area as a place of intense pedestrian activity • Enhance streetscape features • Provide additional vehicle parking facilities Compliance with the Guidelines It is the intent of the Village of Plainfield that all development and redevelopment within the Historic Urban Core shall conform to the following basic guiding principles. Design Guidelines for the Historic Urban Core Purpose of Guidelines Objectives of Guidelines Compliance with Guidelines Historic Urban Core 24 Village of Plainfield Preservation of the Original Character of the Site Guideline : Maintain existing site development patterns. The setback of the principal building on a site shall be consistent with the setback of adjacent or nearby buildings facing on the same street On corner lots, the setback of the principal building on a site shall be consistent with the setbacks of adjacent or nearby buildings on the intersecting streets Retain existing openspace and landscaped yards associated with historic buildings wherever practical Retain original historic location of Principal Entrance to a building Retain mature landscaping wherever practical Restore historic site features (such as fences, paving materials, lighting, etc.) wherever practical Preservation of Site Character Maintenance of Existing Patterns of Development Historic Urban Core Design Manual 25 Preservation of the Original Character of the Primary Façade(s) Guideline: Maintain the original character of the façade. Determine historic architectural features through research of written and photographic sources Respect original architectural design Retain historically significant façades Be historically and architecturally honest to the period of construction or significant historic remodeling Resist any temptation to falsely “historicize” a building by adding features that are not of the construction period or were never part of the original design Maintain character of all facades visible from the public right-of-way when a building is located on a corner lot Guideline : Preserve architecturally significant components of historic commercial buildings. Preserve original construction materials including wood, brick, terra cotta, stone, glazing, cast iron, etc. Maintain size, material, shape and configuration of hi storic storefront openings including transoms and doorways Maintain storefront elements including panels below display windows, cast iron columns, storefront lintels, wall height, etc. Preserve size, shape and configuration of upper story windows Preserve upper wall architectural features including masonry or wood details Maintain original design of roofline including decorative wood or metal cornices or parapets at the roofline Replace missing components with new elements that match the material and appearance of the original component based on historic documentation Preservation of Primary Façade Retention of Building Character Original Facades Significant Components Historic Urban Core 26 Village of Plainfield Historic Urban Core Design Manual 27 Historic Urban Core 28 Village of Plainfield Historic Urban Core Design Manual 29 Historic Urban Core 30 Village of Plainfield Guideline: Align architectural elements. Reinforce established horizontal relationships of building elements (including storefront height, storefront components, upper floor components, rooflines and cornices) between adjacent structures Reinforce established vertical relationships of building elements within a building façade Restore original line of commercial storefronts at the sidewalk edge Guideline: Incorporate pedestrian-oriented design elements at sidewalk level. Retain recessed entry doors to storefronts; recessed entries with splayed sidewalls are desirable Maintain large display windows; incorporate merchandise display areas inside storefront windows Storefront doors shall have large areas of glass Retain recessed entry doors to second floor stairways where adjacent to public way Preservation of Primary Façade Alignment of Architectural Elements Incorporation of Pedestrian-oriented Design Historic Urban Core Design Manual 31 Guideline : Utilize storefront awnings and shutters appropriately. Consider awnings to provide depth to the façade and to shade the storefront glass; historically awnings were rarely utilized on the south side of Lockport Street; select an awning style that complements the historic period of the rest ored storefront Utilize individual awnings for each storefront bay; avoid use of continuous awnings across multiple storefront bays Storefront awnings may project over 50% of the width of the public sidewalk or to a maximum of 6’-0” from the face of the building Align bottom edge of awning flaps when multiple awnings are utilized along a street; mount awnings not less than 7’-6” above the sidewalk Awnings may be installed at upper floor windows if suggested by historic documentation Install fabric awnings only (metal awnings are not permitted); operable awnings are preferable Do not backlight awnings (making the awning a beacon along the street); downlighting for the enhancement of the storefront may be installed below the awning Coordinate awning color with building color scheme; avoid garish contrasts Where suggested by historic documentation, fixed canopies may be appropriate where permitted by Village approval Store identification signage (business name and/or company logo) may be located on the awning face; such signage, subject to approval, shall not exceed 12 square feet and may contain only a store name and logo Store names and street addresses may be placed on an awning flap Install shutters only where suggested by historic documentation Install window shutters correctly so that shutters appear to be operable (inside vertical edge of shutters shall be placed at the edge of the window opening not at the outside edge of window trim) Utilize wood shutters; plastic, metal or other synthetic materials are not appropriate Preservation of Primary Façade Use of Awnings Historic Urban Core 32 Village of Plainfield Guideline : Install appropriate building signage. Locate signage in historically appropriate spaces of the building façade The total area of signage for each storefront will be determined based on a “Storefront Design Plan” which identifies the location of all proposed signage and which will be evaluated based on the historic architectural character of the fa çade(s) and/or site plan Street addresses may be placed on facades above the Principal Entry or painted on entry doors or transoms above the principal entry Store identification signs may be placed above the storefront and awning; the height of signs shall not exceed 24 inches, the width of signs shall not exceed 65% of the building width or storefront width to a maximum of 15 feet in length (whichever is less) Iconographic and store identification signs may project from the building façade no more than 5 feet; the overall dimensions of projecting signs may not exceed 16 square feet per face: the lowest part of the sign must be a minimum of 7’-6” above the sidewalk Where practical, ground-mounted signage is permitted; the overall dimensions may not exceed 20 square feet per face and not exceed 54” in height measured from grade Ground-mounted signage must be constructed of materials similar in character to the principal structure; ground-mounted signage may not be placed where it may block sightlines for pedestrian and vehicular traffic Painted storefront signage is encouraged and each face may be lit by external means; internally-illuminated sig nage, including individual letters, is not permitted Signage shall be illuminated with inconspicuous sources that utilize the lowest wattage lamp practical Flashing or moving message boards may not be incorporated in any permitted sign; lighted message boards are not permitted Painted window signage for the purpose of store identification is permitted; window signage is permitted at display windows and, if exposed above an awning, at transom windows Preservation of Primary Façade Signage Regulations Historic Urban Core Design Manual 33 Overall area of window signage graphics may not exceed 9 square feet per display wi ndow or more than 25% of the total glass area per display window (whichever is less) Neon signs, which are nostalgic or historic in character, are permitted by special approval; signs may not exceed 5 square feet in overall dimension and are limited to no more than 2 movements Neon advertising and business operation signs are not permitted Temporary promot ional signs and placards may be placed in display windows for no more than 30 days; the total area of such signs shall not exceed 8 square feet Rooftop signage is not permitted Permanent building identification (such as building names, cornerstones, etc.) shall not be construed as building signage Preservation of Primary Façade Signage Regulations (cont.) Historic Urban Core 34 Village of Plainfield Historic Urban Core Design Manual 35 Guideline: Utilize historically appropriate color schemes. Color shall enhance the tone of the major building materials Historic storefronts most often were painted in deep tones (such as black, dark olive green, dark bronze brown, deep maroon, etc.) Avoid the temptation of highlighting architectural details with multiple colors Use color to unify architectural elements of each storefront; colors shall be compatible with business logo Use color to visually link one building with other nearby buildings Do not paint masonry that has not been painted previously Prepare surfaces to be painted utilizing the gentlest means possible; sandblasting is not permitted Guideline: Preserve architecturally significant components of historic institutional buildings. Preserve original construction materials including wood, brick, terra cotta, stone, glazing, cast iron, etc. Preserve all historic facades visible from the public right-of-way Maintain size, material, shape and configuration of historic window, door and entry portal openings of institutional buildings (such as churches and libraries) Retain all historic monumental stairways, porches and principal entry details Preserve upper wall architectural features including masonry or wood details Maintain original design of roofline including decorative wood or metal cornices or parapets at the roofline Retain all decorative roof elements such as lanterns, cupolas, steeples, spires, etc. Preservation of Primary Façade Exterior Color Schemes Historic Institutional Buildings Historic Urban Core 36 Village of Plainfield Historic Urban Core Design Manual 37 Guideline: Preserve architecturally significant components of historic residential buildings. Preserve all historic facades visible from the public right-of-way Preserve original construction materials including wood, brick, terra cotta, stone, glazing, cast iron, etc. Retain historic wall material; vinyl or synthetic siding is not permitted Maintain size, material, shape and configuration of historic window and door openings Retain all historic stairways, porches and principal entry details Preserve upper wall architectural features including masonry or wood details Maintain original design of roofline including decorative wood or metal cornices or parapets at the roofline Retain all decorative roof elements such as dormers, chimneys, etc. Preservation of Primary Façade Historic Residential Buildings Historic Urban Core 38 Village of Plainfield Infill Development and Remodeling of Secondary Facades in the Historic Urban Core Guideline : Align architectural elements in new construction. Reinforce the established horizontal relationships of building elements on the façades of adjacent buildings Incorporate the established vertical relationships of building elements on the façades of adjacent buildings Maintain the line of the storefront at the sidewalk edge to match adjacent buildings Maintain the average height of the principal façade of adjacent buildings (adjacent buildings include buildings on either side, to the rear and across a street) Guideline: Respect rhythm of existing façades. Consider designs that will maintain the rhythm established by the repetition of standard façade widths Minimize long expanses of building façades that are out-of-scale with the historic commercial buildings along Lockport Street; provide variation of the storefront building plane Maintain the original line of the storefront at the sidewalk edge Building facades adjacent to pedestrian alleyways that may connect the public right-of-way to internal block functions (such as parking lots or pocket parks) must be designed to reflect the architectural character of the principal facade Infill Development and Remodeling Alignment of Elements in New Construction Rhythm of Existing Facades Historic Urban Core Design Manual 39 Guideline : Respect the existing architectural character of the building and adjacent buildings. Maximum building height for residential buildings shall not exceed 35’-0” measured vertically from the main floor to the roof ridge Respect the established architectural character of adjacent residential buildings or the predominant architectural style evident in the surrounding neighborhood Maximum building height for institutional buildings shall not exceed 10’-0” above the highest point of the nearest institutional building (excluding steeples, cupolas, lanterns, etc.) Respect the established architectural character of the adj acent institutional building types in the Historic Urban Core Maximum building height for commercial buildings shall not exceed 35’-0” above public sidewalk at the principal entrance to a building Maintain similarity in storefront, upper floor and overall building heights at the principal street façade of commercial buildings Maintain the historic size, shape and configuration of storefront openings including transoms and doorways of adjacent buildings Retain recessed entry doors to storefronts; recessed entries shall have splayed sidewalls and storefront doors shall have large areas of glass Maintain storefront elements including panels below display windows, vertical storefront columns, storefront lintels, awnings etc. Maintain large display windows; incorporate merchandise display areas inside storefront windows Retain recessed entry doors to second floor stairways where provided Preserve size, shape, proportion and configuration of upper story windows; reinforce the established pattern(s) of upper story windows Maintain the historic distinction between lower and upper floors of commercial buildings Interpret upper wall architectural features including masonry or wood details and decorative cornices or parapets at the roofline Infill Development and Remodeling Architectural Character of Adjacent Buildings Historic Urban Core 40 Village of Plainfield Guideline : Utilize historically appropriate materials. Utilize materials that are similar to the original, historic construction materials Utilize materials that are similar in texture to those established in the historic commercial area such as metal, glass, brick, stone, unglazed terra cotta, etc. Incorporate traditional façade components and materials in new building designs; new components shall be based on traditional components but may be interpreted in a less historic manner Refrain from introducing materials that have not been used historically; however, new materials sympathetic in appearance or character to historic materials may be appropriate Utilize standard-sized building components to help establish apparent scale and maintain the overall scale of the Historic Urban Core Guideline: Retain connection between public and private open space. Wherever possible (with the exception of the 500 Block of Lockport Street) maintain all open space fronting public right-of-ways Develop open spaces for the enjoyment of social activities, architectural landmarks or natural land forms that may be visually interesting; encourage seating that is useable year-round Provide direct access from public sidewalks to all retail shops, restaurants, businesses and institutional buildings Provide a 6’-0” wide (min.) landscape bed to screen the view of any surface parking lot adjacent to the public right-of-way Infill Development and Remodeling Historically Appropriate Materials Open Space Considerations Historic Urban Core Design Manual 41 Additions to Existing Buildings in the Historic Urban Core Guideline: Respect and preserve historic architecture. The size and scale of additions shall not visually overpower a historic building; an addition shall not alter the future interpretation of the historic character of a building Additions shall be located as inconspicuously as possible at the rear or least character-defining façade of the building; contemporary designs shall be limited to façades that are not visible from the public right-of-way Additions shall not obscure, damage or destroy any defin ing architectural feature of the historic structure that is visible from a public right-of-way Additions shall be designed in a manner that--if such additions were to be removed in the future--the essential form and in tegrity of the structure would be unimpaired Additions shall be designed to be compatible with the original materials and architectural character of the historic building; however, the addition shall be readily discernable from the historic building Additions shall be compatible with the historic building in mass, height (including foundation height and eave lines) materials, proportion, roof shape and window spacing, size and configuration Additions must be visually separated or set back from the historic façade(s) of a building It is inappropriate to add architectural details or features that do not have precedence in the building and that would create a false historic appearance to buildings deemed “significant” or “contributing” It is inappropriate to enclose front or side porches that are visible from the public right-of-way unless such modification does not alter the historic appearance or components of the porch If a historic architectural component is completely missing, it shall be replaced with either a reconstructed element based on accurate documentation or a new design that is compatible with the historic character of the building in height, proportion, roof shape, material, texture, scale, detail and color Additions to Historic Buildings Respect Historic Architecture Historic Urban Core 42 Village of Plainfield Historic Urban Core Design Manual 43 Transitional Urban Core 44 Village of Plainfield Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 45 Defining the Transitional Urban Core District Boundaries From a beginning point at the intersection of Main and Des Plaines Streets due west to Old Van Dyke Road, then south along Old Van Dyke Road to Lockport Street, then west to the west property line of the Village Hall Site, then south to the north property line of Wallin Park, then east to the EJ&E tracks, then north to Chicago Street (extended), then east to Fox River Street, then north to the south property line of 802 Des Plaines Street, then east to Des Plaines Street, then north to Main Street. District Overview The Transitional Urban Core is an area surrounding Lockport Street that has been in flux since the earliest years of the Plainfield community. As an extension of the well-defined business district of the Historic Urban Core, the Transitional Urban Core includes similar commercial architecture of the late Victorian period. However, instead of historic churches, the Transitional Urban Core contains numerous historic industrial buildings. Although a few historic masonry residences exist along Lockport Street and within the adjacent neighborhoods, wood-framed residences of the late 19th and early 20th century dominat e the Transitional Urban Core. In the Transitional Urban Core, the architectural character is not as well defined as in other areas of the Plainfield community. The Transitional Urban Core is comprised of many different building types and construction materials. The vari ety of architectural expression highlight s the evolutionary process that has influenced this area of the community for many generations. Unfortunately, many of the historic buildings in the Transitional Urban Core do not retain a great deal of integrity; many of the newer buildings are of poor design. Therefore, this area of Lockport Street is an ideal location for re-development initiatives. Historic Development Patterns of the Transitional Urban Core Early Development District Boundaries Designated District Overview Historic Development Patterns Transitional Urban Core 46 Village of Plainfield The area identified as the Transitional Urban Core was, until the turn-of-the-nineteenth-century, the western edge of the Village of Plainfield. Historically, the area has served as a major hub of transportation routes, the Du Page River, and a mixed-use area of industrial and residential uses. Within the last several decades, the Lockport Street Business District has expanded westward towards the Du Page River into this area. Transportation shaped the development of this end of Lock port Street. As a major stagecoach route between Chicago and Ottawa, Illinois, Main Street intersected with Lockport Street at the Du Page River. At this point, the route south of Plainfield split: one could cross the Du Page River and travel on the west side of the river or one could continue on James Street (formerly Kankakee Street) towards the Walker Mill site. Near this intersection, the first development occurred. About 1845, James Beggs operated a tavern near this point where the roads and river met. Also near this point, a large hotel, Du Page House, was er ected on the north side of Lockport Street; it burned to the ground on New Year’s Eve of 1863. Few residences were constructed near Lockport Street either west of Fox River Street or at the southern end of Main Street before 1890. Those houses that were erected were small, vernacular buildings. Those houses that exhibited architectural characteristics favored Greek Revival element s. One of the most notable residences was the E.E. Woods Octagonal House (1854), which rose from the ridge north of Lockport Street and west of the Du Page River. In the early 1850s, two plank road companies--the Oswego, Chicago & Indiana Plank Road Company and the Yorkville, Plainfield and Lockport Plank Road Company--were formed and established their routes along Lockport Street. Both toll routes crossed the Du Page River and split: one route continued west and the other route headed north on Van Dyke Road. Although both companies were short-lived, they operated a common tollhouse at the northeast corner of Lockport Street and Van Dyke Road. In the early 1880s, the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern (E.J. & E.) Railroad acquired an easement and laid railroad tracks West of the Du Page River. By the close of the 19th century, the area around the Du Page River, which was prone to periodic flooding, was largely open pastureland with a few residences, businesses and industrial buildings. Impact of Early Transportation Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 47 Impact of the Streetcar In 1904, the Aurora, Plainfield & Joliet Railway (originally Joliet, Plainfield & Aurora), a streetcar company, was formed and establishe d its route along the former Oswego, Chicago & Indiana Plank Road easement. At that time, the company erected a large, brick storage and maintenance building on the north side of Lockport Street east of Main Street. This facility housed all of the li ne’s streetcars and provided a hub for the railway operations. Simultaneously, the Aurora, Plainfield & Joliet Railway purchased twenty acres of land, which spanned the Du Page River south of Lockport Street between James Street and the E. J. & E. Railroad tracks. Christened “Electric Park,” the land was developed into an entertainment park replete with sunken gardens, a restaurant, a two-story gazebo, an auditorium, an open-air dance pavilion, a bowling alley, harness track and other attractions. To permit boating, “bathing,” and other water activities, the Du Page River was dammed. Camping cottages were constructed on the east side of the river. A footbridge and two iron truss bridges--one for horse and carriages and another for streetcars--crossed the Du Page River. As the popularity of streetcar travel waned, Electric Park closed in 1923. Not only did the development of the park alter the character of the west end of Lockport Street but also encouraged other development--primarily residential--west of Fox River Street. Development since 1925 After Electric Park closed, the property east of the Du Page River was subdivided and sold for residential construction. Many of the cottages were converted to year-round homes. The property west of the Du Page River sat vacant for several years. Radio Station W.W.A.E. operated from the park pavilion, and a roller coaster was erected on the west bank of the Du Page. In the 1940s and 1950s, the pavilion, which was the only remaining non-residential building on the site, was converted to a roller skating rink and dance hall. Later, it was converted to a warehouse and bus garage. In the late 1920s, a gas station was built at the intersection point of Lockport and Main Streets. During the 1930s and 1940s, a small dairy operated on Van Dyke Road north of Lockport Street. Since the 1940s, several industrial buildings were erected and the former streetcar barn was converted to a Streetcars and Electric Park Development Since 1925 Transitional Urban Core 48 Village of Plainfield manufacturing facility. West of the Du Page River, a small automobile junkyard developed on the ol d tollhouse property. In the 1960s, a large telephone exchange building was constructed on the north side of Lockport Street just east of Fox River Street. Through the 1960s and 1970s, numerous apartment buildings were constructed on Main Street, stretching eastward from the intersection with Lockport Street. Historic Signage Advertisement has always been a part of the downtown business environment. However, because this portion of the Lockport Street corridor remained largely industrial in use, few historic signage references are available. In fact, few businesses in this area of Plainfield utilized signage. Until recently, projecting signs with painted faces were most common. As more buildings converted to commercial and retail use in the 1990s, storefront awnings with the business name imprinted on the face have become the standard. Residential Neighborhoods & Open Space At the east end of t he Transitional Urban Core area, the business district development is related to and contained by the surrounding residential neighborhood. Theref ore, the east end of the Transitional Urban Core area of the Lockport Street business district developed as a linear commercial area bounded by and with little expansion into the residential neighborhoods. The residences immediately north and south of the Lockport Street business district at the east end of the Transitional Urban Core have become an important and integral element of the district’s character. The mid-section of the Transitional Urban Core is primarily residential. Because the west end of Lockport Street developed few commercial uses until the 1940s, the residential neighborhoods north and south converged at Lockport Street. At the west end of the Transitional Urban Core area, the area has remained largely undeveloped since the 1990 tornado. Presently, the area west of Main and James Streets is defined by the potential of an expansive public greenway straddling the Du Page River. Historic Signage Adjacent Residential Neighborhoods Open Space West End Largely Undeveloped Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 49 Open space has been a time-honored element in the downtown area of Plainfield. Although a portion of the block of Lockport Street west of Des Plaines Street developed from lo t line to lot line, the remainder of the downtown area developed in a manner that retained landscaped yards, tr ee-lined streets, and open space. The landscaped parkways and open space provided visual relief from the built environment and maintained a quaint, “small town” atmosphere. With increased pressure for redevelopment, these small open spaces (generally, pr ivately-owned) are disappearing and are being replaced with parking lots and driveways, building additions, or uninteresting outdoor patios. Development since 1975 Little redevelopment has occurred in the Transitional Urban Core since 1975. A new office building replaced the 1920s-era gas station at Main Street; a new medical office was constructed on the east bank of the Du Page River; and a few residences have been converted to attractive business and restaurant uses. However, the August 28, 1990 tornado and the Flood of 1996 destroyed many of the historic and non-historic sites in this district. The historic Plank Road Tollhouse, E.E. W ood Octagon House, and the remaining structures associated with Electric Park (except the streetcar barn) no longer exist. Recently, though, the Village of Plainfield continues to pursue the redevelopment of th is area of Lockport Street. Several agencies have made commitments to the redevelopment of this section of Lockport Street. East of the Du Page River, the Village of Plainfield has purchased several dilapidated properties, razed the structures, and is planning a new parking lot. West of the Du Page River, the Village of Plainfield is planning a new Village Hall; the Plainfield Township Park District and the Village of Plainfield continue planning for a Du Page River Park; and the Plainfield Historical Society has relocated the abandoned E.J. & E. Railroad Depot to the former Plank Road Tollhouse site where the depot will be restored. Existing Character of the Transitional Urban Core With the exception of portions of the 600 Block of Lockport Street, the character of the Transitional Urban Core consists, primarily, of free-standing structures on Open Space Historic Streetscape Character New Village Hall Site Modern Era Development Existing Character of the Transitional Core Transitional Urban Core 50 Village of Plainfield landscaped parcels. Architecturally, the buildings are diverse in style, size and lot placement. Much of the re-development that occurred between 1975 and 1990 was not sensitive to the historic development patterns of Lockport Street or the architectural character of the individual buildings themselves. However, more recent efforts have embraced the established historic character of the downtown. Development Patterns The key principles that define the development of t he Transitional Urban Core are: 600 Block of Lockport Street is dominated by structures built adjacent to the public sidewalk and the full width of their lot; landscaping is confined primarily to the public right-of-way streetscape improvements 700 Block of Lockport Street and streets surrounding the Lockport Street Corridor are dominated by free-standing buildings; large open spaces (private and public); and significant areas of landscaping between structures Converted residences anywhere in the Transitional Urban Core maintain their historic relationship to the street Many of the properties facing Lockport and Main Streets are in poor condition, aesthetically, and are prime targets for redevelopment The area surrounding the Du Page River and to the western edge of the Transitional Urban Core is largely vacant and undeveloped The Lockport Street Commercial District is composed of numerous building types. Some of t he building types are characteristic of t he historic period of development (1850 – 1925) while others are modern building types that detract from the historic atmosphere of the central business district. Commercial Architecture The principal commercial building types that exist currently in the Historic Urban Core are: Historic Commercial – generally, these buildings are more than 90 years old. Constructed of masonry or wood, these buildings are 1-2 stories in height. Current occupations Key Development Patterns Existing Commercial Building Types Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 51 include retail stores, professional offices and apartments. Infill Commercial – generally, these buildings are less than 30 years old. Constructed of masonry and metal frame, these buildi ngs are typically 1-2 stories in height. Current occupations include retail stores, professional offices and distribution centers. Most do not contribute to the character of the Historic Urban Core. Historic Industrial – generally, these buildings are more than 90 years old. Constructed of masonry or wood, these buildings are 2 stories in height. Current occupations include retail stores, professional offices, vacated industrial plants and apartments. Infill Industrial – generally, these buildings are less than 50 years old. Constructed of masonry, these buildings are typically 1-2 stories in height. Current occupations include warehousing or are vacant. Most do not contribute to t he character of the Historic Urban Core. Professional Offices – generally, these buildings are less than 50 years old. Constr ucted of masonry, these buildings are 1 story in height. Current occupations include professional office s. Most do not contribute to the character of the Historic Urban Core. Residential Conversions – generally, these buildings are more than 80 years old. Constructed of wood or masonry, these buildings are 1-2 stories in height. Current occupations include retail stores, restaurants, professional offices and apartments. Apartment Buildings – generally, these buildings are less than 40 years old. Constructed of wood and masonry, these buildings are 2 stories in height. Some include professional offices at the first floor. Most do not cont ribute to the character of the Transitional Urban Core. Residential Architecture According to a 1994 architectural survey completed by The Urbana Group for the Village of Plainfield, the typical residential building styles and types that exist currently in the Transitional Urban Core are (see also Appendix D): Residential Architectural Styles Greek Revival: (circa 1825 –1860). Gabled or hipped roof of low pitch; cornice line and porch roofs Existing Commercial Building Types (cont.) Historic Residential Architecture Styles &Types Transitional Urban Core 52 Village of Plainfield emphasized with a wide band of trim; façade corners sometimes identified by a corner board; front door typically surrounded by narrow sidelights and a re ctangular line of transom lights above; frequently found with porches, either entry or full façade. Gothic Revival: (circa 1840 -1880). Steeply pitched roof, usually with steep cross gables; gables commonly have decorated vergeboards (bargeboards); windows commonly extend into the gables, frequently having pointed-arch (Gothic) shape; one story porch usually present. Italianate: (circa 1840 - 1885). Two or three stories; low-pitched roof, usually hipped, with widely overhanging eaves having decorative brackets beneath; tall, narrow windows, commonly arched or curved above; windows frequently with elaborate hood molds; can have square cupola or tower; small porches may be present; sits prominently above grade on a limestone foundation. Second Empire: (circa 1860-1890). Distinctive Mans ard roof; dormer windows may be present on the steep lower slope of the roof; molded cornices bound the upper and lower edge of the steep roof slope; widely overhanging eaves having decorative brackets; iron creating common at main and secondary rooflines; may be combined with Gothic Revival or Italianate details; sits prominently above grade on a limestone foundation. Shingle Style: (circa 1880-1900). Wall cladding (most times only second story) and roof cladding of continuous wood shingles; shingled walls without interruption at corners; asymmetrical facades with irregular, steeply-pitched rooflin e; porches and dormers are common; windows may be varied and are sometimes recessed at attic gables; sits prominently above grade on a limestone foundation. Queen Anne : (circa 1880-1910). Steeply pitched roof of irregular shape, usually with a dominant front-facing gable; patterned shingles, cutaway bay windows, wall materials of differing textures, and other devices to avoid a smooth-walled appearance; asymmetrical façade with partial or full-width porch usually one story high and extended along one or both side walls; bays, towers, overhangs; sits prominently above grade on a limestone foundation. Historic Residential Architecture Styles & Types (cont.) Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 53 Neo-Classical (Cl assical Revival): (circa 1895-1950). Façade dominated by full-height porch with roof supported by classical columns; columns typically have Ionic or Corinthian capitals; facades show symmetrically balanced window and center door; sits prominently above grade on a limest one foundation. Residential Architectural Types Bungalow: Small one or one-and-one-half story cottage with low-slung silhouette; gable roof with wide eaves, dormers common; large full-width front porch; multiple windows; frequent use of natural materials. Four Square : Two-story with square or nearly square floor plan; pyramid or hipped roof, one or more centrally placed dormers, roof of dormers usually echoes main roof form; one-story porch across façade, porch roof usually echoes main roof form; often references Colonial Revival, Craftsman or Prairie School architectural styles. Gabled Ell: Intersecting gable roof and L-shape floor plan, ridgelines of both roofs must be the same height; façade comprises a gable end and a perpendicular side wing of varying dimension; entrance is usually in the wing, sheltered by a porch; one, one-and-one-half, or two stories. Gable Front: Gable or gambrel roof oriented to face street; entrance in gable or gambrel end; one to two-and-one-half stories; side elevation dormers often enlarge space in half-story. Side Hall Plan: Two rooms deep and one room wide with sidehall containing a staircase; entrance located to far left or right; gable, gambrel, or low hip roof; one to two-and-one-half stories. Upright and Wing: Gable front (upright element) with perpendicular side wing; side wing half to one full-story lower in height than upright; T or L-shape floor plan; perpendicular orientation; gable roof; façade entrance located in gable end or side wing, often sheltered by a porch. Residential Architecture Styles and Types (cont.) Transitional Urban Core 54 Village of Plainfield Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 55 Architectural Design Guidelines for the Transitional Urban Core Purpose of the Guidelines The Village of Plainfield has extended a special commitment to the visual quality of the Lockport Street Business Corridor. These guidelines--and the design manual of which they are part--are intended to put in one place an explanation of t he expected design standards when publi c or private development is planned in the downtown area. The guidelines that follow are to be used as a design tool and to enable meaningful dialogue between developers, designers and community representatives regarding the appropriateness of specific design proposals. The guidelines indicate the design elements that may be present in an architecturally compatible downtown building and focus attention on those elements that will encourage a pedestrian-friendly atmosphere. Development in the Transitional Urban Core must be especially sensitive to issues of compatibility but also to issues associated with transitional land uses. Objectives of the Guidelines The guidelines for development within the Transitional Urban Core are intended to: • Retain the existing architectural character and urban development patterns where practical • Develop the area as a recognizable and viable commercial and residential district • Encourage the restoration of historically significant structures • Minimize alterations that weaken the historic integrity of individual buildings and of the area at large • Encourage infill development and redevelopment consistent with the architectural character and land use patterns of the Historic Urban Core • Encourage new development that respects, enhances or re-interprets the visual character of the area • Improve the retail shopping and commercial office environment • Provide additional residential housing opportunities Design Guidelines for the Transitional Urban Core Purpose of Guidelines Objectives of Guidelines Transitional Urban Core 56 Village of Plainfield • Increase density of residential development • Develop the Du Page River as a publicly-accessible amenity • Establish the area as a place of intense pedestrian activity • Provide additional vehicle parking facilities Compliance with the Guidelines It is the intent of t he Village of Plainfield that all development and re-development within the Transitional Urban Core shall conform to the following basic guiding principles. Objectives of Guidelines (cont.) Compliance with Guidelines Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 57 Preservation of the original character of the site Guideline: Maintain existing site development patterns. The setback of the principal building on a site shall be consistent with the setback of adjacent or nearby buildings facing on the same street On corner lots, the setback of the principal building on a site shall be consistent with the setbacks of adjacent or nearby buildings on the intersecting streets Retain existing open space and landscaped yards associated with historic buildings wherever practical Retain original historic location of Principal Entrance to a building Retain mature landscaping wherever practical Restore historic site features (such as fences, paving materials, lighting, etc.) wherever practical Preservation of Site Character Maintenance of Existing Patterns of Development Transitional Urban Core 58 Village of Plainfield Preservation of the historic character of primary façade(s) Guideline: Maintain the original character of the façade. Determine historic architectural features through research of written and photographic sources Respect original architectural design Retain historically significant façades Be historically and architecturally honest to the period of construction or significant historic remodeling Resist any temptation to falsely “historicize” a building by adding features that are not of the construction period or were never part of the original design Maintain character of all facades visible from the public right-of-way when a building is located on a corner lot Guideline: Preserve architecturally significant components of historic commercial and industrial buildings. Preserve original construction materials including wood, brick, terra cotta, stone, glazing, cast iron, etc. Maintain size, material, shape and configuration of hist oric street level openings (including vehicular doorways) Maintain storefront elements including panels below display windows, cast iron columns, storefront lintels, wall height, etc. Preserve size, shape and configuration of upper story windows Preserve upper wall architectural features including masonry or wood details Maintain original design of roofline including decorative wood or metal cornices or parapets at the roofline Replace missing components with new elements that match the material and appearance of the original component based on historic documentation Preservation of Primary Facade Original Façade Character Significant Components Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 59 Transitional Urban Core 60 Village of Plainfield Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 61 Transitional Urban Core 62 Village of Plainfield Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 63 Guideline: Align architectural elements. Reinforce established horizontal relationships of building elements (including storefront height, storefront components, upper floor components, rooflines and cornices) between adjacent structures Reinforce established vertical relationships of building elements within a building façade Restore original line of commercial storefronts at the sidewalk edge Guideline: Incorporate pedestrian-oriented design elements at sidewalk level. Retain recessed entry doors to storefronts at co mmercial buildings; recessed entries shall have splayed sidewalls Maintain large display windows; incorporate merchandise display areas inside storefront windows Storefront doors shall have large areas of glass Retain recessed entry doors to second floor stairways where adjacent to public way Preservation of Primary Façade Alignment of Architectural Elements Incorporation of Pedestrian-oriented Design Transitional Urban Core 64 Village of Plainfield Guideline: Utilize storefront awnings and shutters appropriately. Consider awnings to provide depth to the façade and to shade the storefront glass; historically awnings were rarely utilized on the south side of Lockport Street; select an awning style that complements the historic period of the rest ored storefront Utilize individual awnings for each storefront bay; avoid use of continuous awnings across multiple storefront bays Storefront awnings may project over 50% of the width of the public sidewalk or to a maximum of 6’-0” from the face of the building Align bottom edge of awning flaps when multiple awnings are utilized along a street; mount awnings not less than 7’-6” above the sidewalk Awnings may be installed at upper floor windows if suggested by historic documentation Install fabric awnings only (metal awnings are not permitted); operable awnings are preferable Do not backlight awnings (making the awning a beacon along the street); downlighting for the enhancement of the storefront may be installed below the awning Coordinate awning color with building color scheme; avoid garish contrasts Where suggested by historic documentation, fixed canopies may be appropriate where permitted by Village approval Store identification signage (business name and/or company logo) may be located on the awning face; such signage, subject to approval, shall not exceed 12 square feet and may contain only a store name and logo Store names and street addresses may be placed on an awning flap Install shutters only where suggested by historic documentation Install window shutters correctly so that shutters appear to be operable (inside vertical edge of shutters shall be placed at the edge of the window opening not at the outside edge of window trim) Utilize wood shutters; plastic, metal or other synthetic materials are not appropriate Preservation of Primary Façade Use of Awnings and Shutters Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 65 Guideline: Install appropriate building and site signage. Locate signage in historically appropriate spaces of the building façade The total area of signage for each storefront will be determined based on a “Storefront Design Plan” which identifies the location of all proposed signage and which will be evaluated based on the historic architectural character of the fa çade(s) and/or site plan Street addresses may be placed on facades above the Principal Entry or painted on entry doors or transoms above the principal entry Store identification signs may be placed above the storefront and awning; the height of signs shall not exceed 24 inches, the width of signs shall not exceed 65% of the building width or storefront width to a maximum of 15 feet in length (whichever is less) Iconographic and store identification signs may project from the building façade no more than 5 feet; the overall dimensions of projecting signs may not exceed 16 square feet per face: the lowest part of the sign must be a minimum of 7’-6” above the sidewalk Where practical, ground-mounted signage is permitted; the overall dimensions may not exceed 20 square feet per face and not exceed 54” in height measured from grade Ground-mounted signage must be constructed of materials similar in character to the principal structure; ground-mounted signage may not be placed where it may block sightlines for pedestrian and vehicular traffic Painted storefront signage is encouraged and each face may be lit by external means; internally-illuminated sig nage, including individual letters, is not permitted Signage shall be illuminated with inconspicuous sources that utilize the lowest wattage lamp practical Flashing or moving message boards may not be incorporated in any permitted sign; lighted message boards are not permitted Painted window signage for the purpose of store identification is permitted; window signage is permitted at display windows and, if exposed above an awning, at transom windows Preservation of Primary Façade Signage Regulations Transitional Urban Core 66 Village of Plainfield Overall area of window signage graphics may not exceed 9 square feet per display wi ndow or more than 25% of the total glass area per display window (whichever is less) Neon signs, which are nostalgic or historic in character, are permitted by special approval; signs may not exceed 5 square feet in overall dimension and are limited to no more than 2 movements Neon advertising and business operation signs are not permitted Temporary promot ional signs and placards may be placed in display windows for no more than 30 days; the total area of such signs shall not exceed 8 square feet Rooftop signage is not permitted Monumental project identification signage for new residential or commercial developments is not permitted; project identification signage must be integrated into the architectural or landscape elements of the project Permanent building identification (such as building names, cornerstones, etc.) shall not be construed as building signage Preservation of Primary Façade Signage Regulations (cont.) Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 67 Transitional Urban Core 68 Village of Plainfield Guideline: Utilize historically appropriate color schemes Color shall enhance the tone of the major building materials Historic storefronts most often were painted in deep tones (such as black, dark olive green, dark bronze brown, deep maroon, etc.) Avoid the temptation of highlighting architectural details with multiple colors Use color to unify architectural elements of each storefront; colors shall be compatible with business logo Use color to visually link one building with other nearby buildings Do not paint masonry that has not been painted previously Prepare surfaces to be painted utilizing the gentlest means possible; sandblasting is not permitted Guideline: Preserve architecturally significant components of historic residential buildings. Preserve all historic facades visible from the public right-of-way Preserve original construction materials including wood, brick, terra cotta, stone, glazing, cast iron, etc. Retain historic wall material; vinyl or synthetic siding is not permitted Maintain size, material, shape and configuration of historic window and door openings Retain all historic stairways, porches and principal entry details Preserve upper wall architectural features including masonry or wood details Maintain original design of roofline including decorative wood or metal cornices or parapets at the roofline Retain all decorative roof elements such as dormers, chimneys, etc. Preservation of Primary Façade Exterior Color Schemes Historic Residential Buildings Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 69 Infill Development and Remodeling of Secondary Facades in the Transitional Urban Core Guideline: Align architectural elements in new construction. Reinforce the established horizontal relationships of building elements on the façades of adjacent buildings Incorporate the established vertical relationships of building elements on the façades of adjacent buildings Maintain the line of the storefront at the sidewalk edge to match adjacent buildings; maintain historic setbacks of existing buildings Infill development that alters the historic residential development along Lockport Street shall maintain a 10’-0” setback from street curb location as determined by the Village Maintain the average height of the principal façade of adjacent buildings (adjacent buildings include buildings on either side, to the rear and across a street) Guideline: Respect rhythm of existing façades. Consider designs that will maintain the rhythm established by the repetition of standard façade widths Minimize long expanses of building façades that are out-of-scale with the historic commercial buildings along Lockport Street; provide variation of the street-facing building plane Maintain the original line of the storefront at the sidewalk edge Building facades adjacent to pedestrian alleyways that may connect the public right-of-way to internal block functions (such as parking lots or pocket parks) must be designed to reflect the architectural character of the principal facade Infill Development and Remodeling Alignment of Elements in New Construction Rhythm of Existing Facades Transitional Urban Core 70 Village of Plainfield Guideline: Respect the existing architectural character of the building and adjacent buildings. Maximum building height for historic industrial buildings shall not exceed the highest point of the existing roof Maximum building height for commercial buildings shall not exceed 35’-0” above public sidewalk at the principal entrance to a building Maintain similarity in storefront, upper floor and overall building heights at the principal street façade of commercial buildings Maintain the historic size, shape and configuration of street-facing openings including transoms and doorways of adjacent buildings Retain recessed entry doors to storefronts and hist oric industrial buildings; recessed storefront entries shall have splayed sidewalls and storefront doors shall have large areas of glass Maintain storefront elements including panels below display windows, vertical storefront columns, storefront lintels, awnings etc. Maintain large display windows; incorporate merchandise display areas inside storefront windows Retain recessed entry doors to second floor stairways where provided Preserve size, shape, proportion and configuration of upper story windows; reinforce the established pattern(s) of upper story windows Maintain the historic distinction between lower and upper floors of commercial buildings Interpret upper wall architectural features including masonry or wood details and decorative cornices or parapets at the roofline Infill Development and Remodeling Architectural Character of Adjacent Buildings Maximum Height for Historic Commercial & Industrial Buildings Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 71 Guideline: Design of Infill Single-Family and Multi-Family Residential Housing. Maximum building height for all residential buildings (single-family and multi-family) shall not exceed 35’-0” measured vertically from the main floor to the roof ridge Single-family Housing shall be Neo-Traditional in design to blend with the historic character of the central Village Single-family residences shall be consistent with adjacent residential structures in mass, size, fenestration patterns and roof forms and shall respect the predominant architectural style evident in the surrounding neighborhood Multi-family housing shall be two stories in height; Multi-family housing shall have a street-facing façade that is consistent with the scale and character of adjacent buildings Multi-family housing shall be inspired by urban designs of the late 19th and early 20th centuries; design features such as porches, sunrooms, bow windows, cornices, etc. are encouraged Infill Development and Remodeling Maximum Residential Building Heights Residential Design Influences Transitional Urban Core 72 Village of Plainfield Guideline: Utilize historically appropriate materials. Utilize materials that are similar to the original, historic construction materials For new residential buildings, utilize materials that are similar in texture to those established in the historic residential areas of the Village For new commercial buildings, utilize materials that are similar in texture to those established in the historic commercial areas of the Village such as metal, glass, brick, stone, unglazed terra cotta, etc. Incorporate traditional façade components and materials in new building designs; new components shall be based on traditional components but may be interpreted in a less historic manner Refrain from introducing materials that have not been used historically; however, new materials sympathetic in appearance or character to historic materials may be appropriate Utilize standard-sized building components to help establish apparent scale and maintain the overall scale of the Transitional Urban Core Infill Development and Remodeling Historically Appropriate Materials Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 73 Guideline: Retain connection between public and private open space. Wherever possible maintain all existing open space fronting public right-of-ways Develop open spaces for the enjoyment of social activities, architectural landmarks or natural land forms that may be visually interesting; encourage seating that is useable year-round Provide direct access from public sidewalks to all retail shops, restaurants, businesses and residential buildings Single-family residential buildings must be set back from the public right-of-way a distance equal to 20’-0” or the average historic setback for the block Multi-family residential buildings must be set back from the public right-of-way a distance equal to 15’-0” or the established setback of an adjacent historic residence Provide a 6’-0” wide (min.) landscape bed to screen the view of any surface parking lot adjacent to the public right-of-way. Infill Development and Remodeling Open Space Considerations Residential Setbacks Transitional Urban Core 74 Village of Plainfield Additions to Existing Buildings in the Transitional Urban Core Guideline: Respect and preserve historic architecture. The size and scale of additions shall not visually overpower a historic building; an addition shall not alter the future interpretation of the historic character of a building Additions shall be located as inconspicuously as possible at the rear or least character-defining façade of the building Additions shall not obscure, damage or destroy any defin ing architectural feature of the historic structure that is visible from a public right-of-way Additions shall be designed in a manner that--if such additions were to be removed in the future, the essential form and in tegrity of the structure would be unimpaired Additions shall be designed to be compatible with the original materials and architectural character of the historic building; however, the addition shall be readily discernable from the historic building Additions shall be compatible with the historic building in mass, height (including foundation height and eave lines) materials, proportion, roof shape and window spacing, size and configuration Additions shall be visually separated or set back from the historic façade(s) of a building It is inappropriate to add architectural details or features that never existed and that would create a false historic appearance It is inappropriate to enclose front or side porches that are visible from the public right-of-way unless such modification does not alter the historic appearance or components of the porch If a historic architectural component is completely missing, it shall be replaced with either a reconstructed element based on accurate documentation or a new design that is compatible with the historic character of the building in height, proportion, roof shape, material, texture, scale, detail and color Inappropriate earlier additions shall be removed prior to the construction of new additions Additions to Historic Buildings Respect Architectural Character Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 75 Transitional Urban Core 76 Village of Plainfield Transitional Urban Core Design Manual 77 Expanded Urban Core 78 Village of Plainfield Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 79 Defining the Expanded Urban Core District Boundaries From a beginning point at the intersection of Old Van Dyke Road and Lockport Street, north along Old Van Dyke Road approximately 800’-0” north of Lockport Street, then west to a boundary approximately 650’-0” west of U.S. Route 30, then south to Commercial Street (extended), then east/northeasterly along Ottawa Street to New Van Dyke Road, then east along the north property line of Wallin Park to the west property line of the Village Hall site, then north to Lockport Street, then east to Old Van Dyke Road. District Overview The Expanded Urban Core consists of a former agricultural area surrounding Lockport Street; this area has remained largely undeveloped since the earliest years of the Plainfield community. As an extension of the well-defined business district of the Historic Urban Core and the not-so-well-defined character of the Transitional Urban Core, the Expanded Urban Core has no existing architectural definition. However, the proposed character has been largely defined by three factors: The 1996 New Town Center Urban Design Competition; the Master Plan & Streetscape Design Plan prepared by Teng & Associates; and the Design Manual prepared by ARRIS Architects + Planners. Unfortunately, most of the historic buildings in the Expanded Urban Core were destroyed by the 1990 tornado. Therefore, this area of Lockport Street is an ideal location for development initiatives that will replicate the scale, character and perceived quality of downtown Plainfield. Historic Development Patterns of the Expanded Urban Core Early Development Until the late 1950s, the area identified as the Expanded Urban Core was an unincorporated, agricultu ral area west of the Village of Plainfield. Only two or three farmsteads lined this rural stretch of roadway. Even though The Lincoln Highway was paved through this area in the 1920s, no roadside development occurred until the mid-1950s. District Boundaries Designated District Overview Early Development Expanded Urban Core 80 Village of Plainfield At that time, a “pole building” erector established a sales office and storage yard on the south side of Lockport Street at Indian Bo undary Road. A few years later, a small drive-in restaurant, known as “The Hat” opened on the north side of Lockport Road. When the restaurant changed ownership, it continued to thrive and expand, eventually evolving into a sit-down restaurant. Throughout the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, several businesses, most of which were industrial or automotive repair operations, opened in non-descript, metal-sided, pole buildings north of Lockport Street. Existing Character of the Expanded Urban Core The area identified for development as the Expanded Urban Core is, today, largely vacant land. However, a few sites have developed in a suburban style with deep setbacks from Lockport Street, little consideration for pedestrian circulation, and large parking lots adjacent to the public right-of-way. Architectural definition of buildings is limited to false facades and minimal details attached to single-story, nondescript boxes. Landscape and streetscape improvem ents are virtually non-existent in the public right-of-ways. Vision for an Expanded Town Center In 1984, the idea of expanding the existing Lockport Street Business District west of the Du Page River was conceived as part of a Master’s Degree Thesis at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign School of Architecture. Until the devastation caused by the 1990 tornado, little credence was given to the concept. In the early 1990s, the Village of Plainfield embraced the concept that would link two segregated residential neighborhoods wit h the downtown business district. In an effort to implement the concept of an expanded town center, the Village of Plainfield convinced the United St ates Post Office to build its proposed distribution facility north of Lockport Stre et. Furthermore, the Village of Plainfield adopted the expanded town center concept in its 1995 Comprehensive Plan and, also, approved a new, mixed-use residential and commercial Planned Unit Development (P.U.D.) for the south side of Lockport Street west of the E.J. & E. Existing Character Downtown Expansion Envisioned Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 81 railroad. In 1996, the Village of Plainfield sponsored an international urban design competition for “A New Town Center.” The results of the design competition were received favorably and have served to guide the Village in its development efforts in this area. The area west of the Du Page River continues to face increasing development pressure as the Plainfield community continues to expand. New Urbanism and the Lockport Street Corridor Basic Principles of New Urbanism “New Urbanism” is the term that is used most often when discussing the urban planning patterns that result in Traditional Neighbor hood Development (TND). Traditional Neighbor hood Development relies on the development and building principles that--over time--have established a sense of neighborhood and community. However, the traditional pattern of walkable, mixed-use neighborhoods has been unintentionally restricted by most existing municipal zoning ordinances. Since the close of World War II, communities across America have been designed under conventional subdivision and Planned Unit Development (PUD) ordinances, which dictate three criteria for development: free and rapid flow of vehicular traffic; parking in quantity; and rigorous separation of land uses. Thus, development that is reminiscent of our admired and comfortable historic communities is forbidden. Today, in an effort to create more livable communities, the time-tested principles of community planning are being re-born as New Urbanism. Architecturally, Traditional Neighborhood Deve lopment relies strongly on context ualism: that is maintaining and creating new buildings and spaces based on an established sense of place…its proportions, scale, materials, elements, and individual or collective character. Development Patterns Key factors of New Urbanism include: Compact communities with a strong sense of place New Urbanism Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND)Contextualism Defined Key Principles of New Urbanism Expanded Urban Core 82 Village of Plainfield Shopping and working activities centered at the core with residential neighborhoods radiating from the Town Center Neighborhoods of limited size with clear edges and a focused center Dense Town Centers that are more pedestrian-oriented than automobile-oriented Pedestrian plazas, small parks, open space, and streetscaping designed as special places for social activity and recreation On-street parking wherever possible with parking lots and structures located to the interior of blocks so as not to interrupt the spatial and architectural continuity of streets Commercial streets spatially defined by walls of buildings that front the sidewalk and are uninterrupted by parking lots Streets sized and detailed to serve equitably the needs of both automobiles and pedestrians Networks of pedestrian paths that pass through parks and town squares as well as mid-block pedestrian alleyways at commercial districts Mixed land uses incorporate housing, civic, employment, educational, entertainment and spiritual activities at the Town Center Civic buildings serve as community symbols and are planned in conjunction with public open space Diverse housing opportunities and choices that range from residences above street-level retail spaces in the Town Center to detached, single-family residences in the adjacent neighborhoods Design Guidelines that define the spatial and architectural character of the Traditional Neighborhood Developments (TNDs). Although much of the New Urbanism design philosophy has been derived from East Coast examples of urban development and architectural expression, the basic principles have been adapted to Midwestern, Southern and West Coast communities. In fact, Key Principles of New Urbanism (cont.) Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 83 New Urbanism is an excellent design tool in the expansion and revitalization of older communities that may be facing new development pressure and/or economic opportunity. Because much of the New Urbanism approach relies on a strict conformance with guiding principles, most communities adopt a Traditional Neighborhood Develo pment Ordinance to assure that development supports the principles of New Urbanism. Communities with stro ng identities, such as Plainfield, may best utilize interpretations of existing, historic architecture and the existing community grid to blend new and existing development into a cohesive whole. Although contemporary development may demand larger buildings than may have existed historically, the existing community fabric serves to establish the basic proportions, scale and materials of future development. Expanded Urban Core 84 Village of Plainfield Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 85 Architectural Design Guidelines for the Expanded Urban Core Purpose of the Guidelines The Village of Plainfield has extended a special commitment to the visual quality of the Lockport Street Business Corridor. These guidelines--and the design manual of which they are part--are intended to put in one place an explanation of t he expected design standards when publi c or private development is planned in the downtown area. The guidelines that follow are to be used as a design tool and to enable meaningful dialogue between developers, designers and community representatives regarding the appropriateness of specific design proposals. The guidelines indicate the design elements that may be present in an architecturally compatible downtown building and focus attention on those elements that will encourage a pedestrian-friendly atmosphere. Objectives of the Guidelines The guidelines for development within the Expanded Urban Core are intended to: • Encourage development and redevelopment consistent with both the architectural character of the Historic Urban Core and contemporary retail standards • Improve the retail shopping and commercial office environment • Provide retail development opportunities in the heart of the community • Encourage the development of public open spaces and urban plazas • Provide additional residential housing opportunities • Increase the density of residential housing • Attract new business ventures that will increase pedestrian traffic in the Lockport Street corridor • Provide new vehicle parking facilities • Eliminate heavy thru-traffic in the Lockport Street corridor • Realize development recommendations identified in the 1995 Comprehensive Plan and the 1996 New Town Center Design Competition Design Guidelines for the Expanded Urban Core Purpose of Guidelines Objectives of Guidelines Expanded Urban Core 86 Village of Plainfield Compliance with the Guidelines It is the intent of t he Village of Plainfield that all development and re-development within the Expanded Urban Core shall conform to the following basic guiding principles. Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 87 Establishment of Development Patterns in the Expanded Urban Core Guideline: Reinforce land development patterns for each sub-zone as suggested in the Master Land Plan for the Expanded Urban Core. Sub-Zone G This sub-zone is intended, primarily, for commercial and institutional development with upper floor office and residential uses Buildings fronting on Lockport Street, New Van Dyke Road and any major vehicular entrance to internal block parking shall be set back, uniformly, 10’-0” from the curb of each roadway as established by the Village The desired development pattern along major vehicular routes consists of lot line-to-lot line development of commercial structures, reminiscent of the Historic Urban Core; the urban character along public right-of-ways of this sub-zone shall be that of a traditional central business district Buildings fronting on interior parking areas shall establish a Principal Façade along vehicular access routes Sub-Zone H This sub-zone is intended, primarily, for commercial and cultural development The majority of t he Principal Façade of all buildings fronting on Lockport Street shall be set back 10’-0” from the curb as established by the Village; not more than 30% of the Principal Façade may be set back a greater distance when approved by the Village The desired development pattern consists of mixed land uses, ranging from Lot Line-to-Lot Line construction to landscaped open space The urban character along public right-of-ways shall transition from that of a traditional central business district to that of contemporary suburban development Buildings fronting on interior parking areas shall establish a Principal Compliance with Guidelines Development Patterns in the Expanded Urban Core Development Reinforces Master Land Plan Planning Sub-Zones Defined Expanded Urban Core 88 Village of Plainfield Façade along vehicular access routes; other facades visible by the general public shall be designed to complement the Principal Façade Sub-Zone I This sub-zone is intended, primarily, for residential development Rowhouse buildings fronting on New Van Dyke Road shall be set back, uniformly, 15’-0” from the public right-of-way as established by the Village The desired development pattern along New Van Dyke Road consists of lot line-to-lot line development, reminiscent of late 19th century residential urban rowhouses Attached single-family housing fronting on a new connector street between New Van Dyke Road and U.S. Route 30 (extended) shall be of Neo-Traditional design reminiscent of the housing found throughout the historic areas of the Village Principal structures shall be set back, uniformly, 20’-0” from the public right-of-way; accessory, detached garage structures shall be accessible from and set back not less than 5’-0” from private alleys at the rear of properties The desired development pattern of attached single-family housing shall be reminiscent of the character of traditional historic neighborhoods Sub-Zone J This sub-zone is intended, primarily, for residential development Principal structures shall be set back, uniformly, 20’-0” from the public right-of-way Landscaped courtyards and open space between build ings shall be an integral component of the development plan The desired development pattern shall be compatible with the Neo-Traditional character of the Expanded Urban Core but may be more suburban in character to provide a transition to adjacent contemporary residential neighborhoods Sub-Zone K This sub-zone is intended, primarily, for recreational development Planning Sub-Zones Defined (cont.) Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 89 Sub-Zone G Sub-Zone H Expanded Urban Core 90 Village of Plainfield Sub-Zone I Sub-Zone J Sub-Zone K Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 91 New Commercial Buildings in the Expanded Urban Core Guideline: Align architectural elements in new construction. Reinforce horizontal relationships of building elements on façades within a block based on existing facades in the Historic Urban Core Incorporate the established vertical relationships of building elements on façades based on existing facades in the Historic Urban Core Maximum Height for Commercial, Cultural and Institutional Buildings shall be 35’-0” measured vertically from the main floor at the Principal Entrance; Cultural and Institutional Buildings may incorporate spires, steeples, cupolas, lanterns or similar rooftop architectural features with approval from the Village Cultural and Institutional Buildings (Municipal Centers, Libraries, Churches, Cultural Centers, etc.) may be set back no more than 30’-0” from the public right-of-way for the purpose of creating a landscaped forecourt Sub-Zone G Commercial/Residential Buildings fronting on Lockport Street, New Van Dyke Road and any major vehicular entrance to internal block parking shall be set back, uniformly, 10’-0” from the curb of each roadway as established by the Village The desired development pattern along major vehicular routes consists of lot line-to-lot line development of commercial structures, reminiscent of the Historic Urban Core Sub-Zone H The majority of t he Principal Façade of all commercial buildings fronting on Lockport Street shall be set back 10’-0” from the curb as established by the Village; not more than 30% of the Principal Façade may be set back a greater distance when approved by the Village The desired development pattern consists of mixed land uses, ranging from Lot Line-to-Lot Line construction to landscaped open space; the urban character along public right-of-ways shall transition from that of a traditional central business district to that of contemporary suburban development Commercial Buildings in the Expanded Urban Core Development Reinforces Master Land Plan Maximum Building Height Cultural and Institutional Building Setbacks Planning Sub-Zones Defined Expanded Urban Core 92 Village of Plainfield Guideline: Visible façades must be architecturally designed. The Principal Façade is the building side that contains the Principal Entry; normally, Principal Facades will front vehicular access routes Buildings fronting on interior parking areas shall establish a Principal Façade along vehicular access routes Buildings may be designed with more than one Principal Entry; each façade with a Principal Entry must be architecturally similar Building façades adjacent to pedestrian alleyways that may connect the public right-of-way to internal block functions (such as parking lots or public squares) must be designed to reflect the architectural character of the Principal Façade All commercial building facades visible by the general public must be designed to architecturally complement the Principal Façade Drive-thru Facilities (such as banks) are not permitted to locate drive-thru service lanes adjacent to or within 75’-0” of Lockport Street Guideline: Respect rhythm of historic façades. Consider designs that will maintain the rhythm established by the repetition of standard façade widths Minimize long expanses of building façades that are out-of-scale with the historic commercial buildings along Lockport Street; provide variation of the street-facing building plane Commercial Building in the Expanded Urban Core Commercial Façades Drive-thru Facilities Rhythm of Historic Façades Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 93 Expanded Urban Core 94 Village of Plainfield Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 95 Interpretation of the architectural character of Downtown Plainfield Guideline: Incorporate pedestrian-oriented design elements at sidewalk level. Introduce recessed entry doors to storefronts; recessed entries shall have splayed sidewalls Utilize large display windows; incorporate merchandise display areas inside storefront windows Storefront doors shall have large areas of glass Retain recessed entry doors to second floor stairways where appropriate Provide recessed porticos or entries at monumental building elements such as building pavilions, corner vestibules or atriums Guideline: Utilize architecturally significant design details found in the Historic Urban Core. Utilize historic elements of downtown Plainfield buildings as inspiration for new construction Continue the use of original construction materials including wood, brick, stone, glazing, cast iron, etc. Maintain size, shape, proportion and configuration of hi storic storefront openings including transoms and doorways Maintain storefront elements including panels below display windows, cast iron columns, storefront lintels, etc. Retain the historic size, shape and configuration of upper story windows Utilize upper wall architectural features including masonry or wood details and decorative cornices or parapets at the roofline Continue the historic design of rooflines Interpretation of Architectural Character Pedestrian-oriented Design Inspiration in Architecture of Historic Urban Core Expanded Urban Core 96 Village of Plainfield Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 97 Guideline: Utilize storefront awnings and shutters appropriately. Consider awnings to provide depth to the façade and to shade the storefront glass Select an awning style that complements the storefront and the historic character of downtown Plainfield Utilize individual awnings for each storefront bay; avoid use of continuous awnings across multiple storefront bays Storefront awnings may project over 50% of the width of the public sidewalk or to a maximum of 6’-0” from the face of the building Align bottom edge of awning flaps when multiple awnings are utilized along a street; mount awning at correct height above the sidewalk Awnings may be installed at upper floor windows if suggested by historic documentation Install fabric awnings only (metal awnings are not permitted); operable awnings are preferable Do not backlight awnings (making the awning a beacon along the street); downlighting for the enhancement of the storefront may be installed below the awning Coordinate awning color with building color scheme; avoid garish contrasts Store identification signage (business name and/or company logo) may be located on the awning face; such signage, subject to approval, shall not exceed 12 square feet and may contain only a store name and logo Store names and street addresses may be placed on an awning flap Install shutters only where suggested by historic example Install window shutters correctly so that shutters appear to be operable (inside vertical edge of shutters shall be placed at the edge of the window opening not at the outside edge of window trim) Utilize wood shutters; plastic, metal or other synthetic materials are not appropriate Interpretation of Architectural Character Use of Awnings Use of Shutters Expanded Urban Core 98 Village of Plainfield Guideline: Install appropriate building and site signage. Locate signage in historically appropriate spaces of the building façade The total area of signage for each storefront will be determined based on a “Storefront Design Plan” which identifies the location of all proposed signage and which will be evaluated based on the historic architectural character of the fa çade(s) and/or site plan Street addresses may be placed on facades above the Principal Entry or painted on entry doors or transoms above the principal entry Store identification signs may be placed above the storefront and awning; the height of signs shall not exceed 24 inches, the width of signs shall not exceed 65% of the building width or storefront width to a maximum of 15 feet in length (whichever is less) Iconographic and store identification signs may project from the building façade no more than 5 feet; the overall dimensions of projecting signs may not exceed 16 square feet per face: the lowest part of the sign must be a minimum of 7’-6” above the sidewalk Where practical, ground-mounted signage is permitted; the overall dimensions may not exceed 20 square feet per face and not exceed 4’-6” in height measured from grade in Sub-Zone G or 12’-0” in height measured from grade in Sub-Zone H Ground-mounted signage must be constructed of materials similar in character to the principal structure; ground-mounted signage may not be placed where it may block sightlines for pedestrian and vehicular traffic Painted storefront signage is encouraged and each face may be lit by external means Internally-illuminated signage, including individual letters, is permitted Signage shall be illuminated with inconspicuous sources that utilize the lowest wattage lamp practical Moving message boards may be incorporated in any permitted sign with Village approval; no flashing signs are permitted Interpretation of Architectural Character Signage Regulations Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 99 Lighted message boards are permitted with Village approval Painted window signage for the purpose of store identification is permitted; window signage is permitted at display windows and, if exposed above an awning, at transom windows Overall area of window signage graphics may not exceed 9 square feet per display wi ndow or more than 25% of the total glass area per display window (whichever is less) Neon signs, which are nostalgic or historic in character, are permitted by special approval; signs may not exceed 5 square feet in overall dimension and are limited to no more than 2 movements Neon advertising and business operation signs are not permitted Cultural buildings (such as auditioriums, theatres, etc.) may utilize 1 projecting marquee at the Principal Entrance to the building; marquee design is subject to approval of the Village Temporary promot ional signs and placards may be placed in display windows for no more than 30 days; the total area of such signs shall not exceed 8 square feet Rooftop signage is not permitted Monumental project identification signage for new residential or commercial developments is not permitted; project identification signage must be integrated into the architectural or landscape elements of the project Permanent building identification (such as building names, cornerstones, etc.) shall not be construed as building signage Interpretation of Architectural Character Signage Regulations (cont.) Expanded Urban Core 100 Village of Plainfield Guideline: Utilize historically appropriate color schemes. Color shall enhance the tone of the major building materials Historic storefronts most often were painted in deep tones (such as black, dark olive green, dark bronze brown, deep maroon, etc.) Avoid highlighting architectural details with multiple colors Use color to unify architectural elements of each storefront; colors shall be compatible with business logo Use color to visually link one building with other nearby buildings Do not paint masonry that has not been painted previously Prepare surfaces to be painted utilizing the gentlest means possible; sandblasting is not permitted Guideline: Parking Decks, Garages and Multi-Level facilities must be architecturally sensitive. Parking facilities, must utilize architectural materials which are sympathetic to the adjacent buildings No parking facility may rise higher than 2 vehicle parking levels above street grade nor be taller than 24’-0” above street level Automobiles must be screened from view from all public ways Signage--except directional and entrance signage as limited by the Village--may not be incorporated into the façade of any parking facility All parking facilities must incorporate landscape features at street level as required by the Village Interpretation of Architectural Character Exterior Color Schemes Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 101 Expanded Urban Core 102 Village of Plainfield Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 103 Expanded Urban Core 104 Village of Plainfield Design of Single-Family and Multi-Family Residential Housing Guideline: Continue the established character of historic residential architecture in Plainfield. Maximum building height for all residential buildings (single-family and multi-family) shall not exceed 35’-0” measured vertically from the main floor to the roof ridge Single-family Housing shall be Neo-Traditional in design to blend with the historic character of the central Village Single-family residences shall be consistent with historic residential structures in mass, size, fenestration patterns and roof forms and shall respect the predominant architectural style evident in the surrounding neighborhood Multi-family housing shall be two stories in height; Multi-family housing shall have a street-facing façade that is consistent with the scale and character of adjacent buildings Multi-family housing shall be inspired by the urban designs of the late 19th and early 20th centuries; design features such as porches, sunrooms, bow windows, cornices, etc. are encouraged Guideline: Align architectural elements in new construction. Reinforce the established horizontal relationships of building elements on the façades of historic residential buildings Incorporate the established vertical relationships of building elements on the façades of historic residential buildings Maintain established setbacks for new residential buildings Maintain the average height of the principal façade of adjacent buildings (adjacent buildings include buildings on either side, to the rear and across a street) Residential Housing Guidelines Respect Established Ne ighborhood Character Alignment of Architectural Features Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 105 Expanded Urban Core 106 Village of Plainfield Guideline: Preserve architecturally significant components of historic residential buildings. Preserve all historic facades visible from the public right-of-way Preserve original construction materials including wood, brick, terra cotta, stone, glazing, cast iron, etc. Retain historic wall material; vinyl or synthetic siding is not permitted Maintain size, material, shape and configuration of historic window and door openings Retain all historic stairways, porches and principal entry details Preserve upper wall architectural features including masonry or wood details Maintain original design of roofline including decorative wood or metal cornices or parapets at the roofline Retain all decorative roof elements such as dormers, chimneys, etc. Guideline: Utilize historically appropriate materials. Utilize materials that are similar to the original, historic construction materials Utilize materials that are similar in texture and color to those established in the historic residential areas of the Village Utilize materials that are similar in texture to those established in the historic commercial areas of the Village such as metal, glass, brick, stone, unglazed terra cotta, etc. Incorporate traditional façade components and materials in new building designs; new components shall be based on traditional components but may be interpreted in a less historic manner Refrain from introducing materials that have not been used historically; however, new materials sympathetic in appearance or character to historic materials may be appropriate Utilize standard-sized building components to help establish apparent scale and maintain the overall pedestrian scale of the Expanded Urban Core Residential Housing Guidelines Preserve Architecturally Significant Components Utilize Historically Appropriate Materials Expanded Urban Core Design Manual 107 Guideline: Establish connection between public and private open space. Develop open spaces for the enjoyment of social activities, architectural landmarks, public art or natural land forms that may be visually interesting; encourage seating that is useable year-round Provide direct access from public sidewalks and public squares to the Principal Entry of all retail shops, restaurants, businesses and residential buildings Locate handicap accessible ramps within architecturally-integrated plazas or landscaped courts Atrium spaces shall be located adjacent to public sidewalks and building forecourts; atrium spaces must be incorporated architecturally Into the overall design of the Principal Façade(s) Where surface parking lots abut a pedestrian sidewalk, court or plaza, provide a streetwall or raised planter which is architecturally compatible with adjacent buildings; streetwalls and planters may not exceed 3’-6” in height measured vertically from grade Provide a 6’-0” wide (min.) landscape bed to screen the view of any surface parking lot adjacent to the public right-of-way Interpretation of Architectural Character Design of Open Space Appendix A 108 Village of Plainfield Appendix A Design Manual 109 Appendix A : Existing Conditions Assessment & Building Improvement Philosophy of Building Preservation Regarding historic buildings, several terms are used interchangeably but often incorrectly or inconsistently. Over time, the meaning of these terms has become less and less clear. Therefore, to avoid misinterpretations, these terms are defined herein: Preservation: the act or process of applying measures to sustain the existing form, shape, details, material, and/or integrity of a bu ilding or structure. (For example, painting.) Literally, preservation means to keep in safety and to protect from destruction or loss. In practice, however, the term is used to encompass the entire spectrum of building conservation including: Reconstruction is the act or process of reproducing by new construction the exact details and form of a building or detail that no longer exists. Rehabilitation is the act or process of returning a building or structure to a state of utility with minimal changes while preserving features that are historically , architecturally or culturally significant. Renovation is the act of repairing and changing an existing building for modern use so that it is functionally equal to a new building with or without respect to historic features. Restoration is the act or process of accurately recovering the form or details of a building or structure as it appeared at a particular time or during a particular era. Stabilization is the act or process of applying measures designed to re-establish a weather-resistant or structurally sound enclosure. (For example, providing a temporary support for an unsound wall.) Assessing a Building The first step towards developing a building improvement program is to assess the history and current physical condition of the building. Literary research and physical investigation is essential to support or refute the history, details, and original character of the building. For most projects, the assistance of a trained preservation Appendix A 110 Village of Plainfield architect or other preservation professional may be warranted. Literary Research In addition to the physical investigation, a tremendous amount of information may be compiled through well-conducted literary research. This research may provide understanding to questions unanswered by the physical investigation. Fo r instance, primary source material may reveal when the building was constructed, dates of alterations, original architect and/or builder, missing building elements, etc Primary source material is original information, spoken or authored by the individuals who actually experienced the event contained in the account. Examples of primary source materials include: letters, property abstracts, deed records, tax records, interviews diaries, building permits, photographs, newspaper articles and insurance records. Primary source material may be found at public libraries, historical societies or gover nment centers. Secondary source materials are those oral and written accounts that have been copied, derived, or interpreted from primary or other sources. In either case, it is important to rely on secondary information cautiously and to confirm information with multiple sources. Some accounts may be incorrect or give contradictory information. Level of Significance The relative level of significance of a building is a major factor in determining the relative importance of a building within a community or region as well as in determining the appropriate degree of preservation treatment. Typically, local buildings are categorized as one of the following: Historically Significant : more than 30 years old that either retains a high degree of architectural integrity or is associated with significant events or persons in the community Contributing : adds to either the understanding or interpretation of historic buildings, sites or districts and may include buildings with marginal architectural integrity Non-contributing : does not add to either the understanding or interpretation of historic buildings, sites or districts; no longer possesses architectural integrity; or is less than 30 years old. Appendix A Design Manual 111 Generally, buildings are categorized in this manner following the completion of an Intensive Level Architectural Survey for the local community. If this type of survey has not been completed, then the building that is being evaluated can be compared to similar buildings in the community to determine a relative level of significance. Physical Investigation The physical investigation of a building will reveal much about the original appearance of the building as well as the changes that may have occurred over time. Additionally, a physical investigation will provide an assessment of the existing building’s condition including structural, architectural and mechanical systems. The resulting analysis provides the basis of future repair and replacement decisions. Since one the most common problems with preservation projects is the careless removal or alteration of significant building features, proper research is an important guidance tool. Changes in the archit ecture of a building are inevitable and often mark important milestones in the evolution of a building. Incremental changes shall be evaluated, to determine their historical value. Developing an Improvement Plan While each building project has its own set of issues, general planning techniques have proven to be successful. It is vitally important to develop a systematic approach for the completion of physical work on any building. Level of Significance Once the level of significance has been determined for a building, then basic decisions concerning the preservation of the building may be made. For example, those structures determined to be most historically significant may demand the preservation or restoration of an important archit ectural feature instead of replacement or elimination of the feature. Or, a building may be deemed less significant and replacement of certain architectural features may be permissible. Buildings that may have no significance at all may be candidates for an adaptive façade design that is Appendix A 112 Village of Plainfield sensitive to the surrounding architectural character. Condition The existing structural and aesthetic condition of a structure alone may determine the most appropriate preservation approach. Nothing more extensive than cleaning may be necessary to revitalize an existing structure. However, in some cases, stabilization of a building may be required before further examination and testing can be completed. When deciding whether or not to repair or replace a particular building component, determine if it was designed properly in the first place. If not, it is necessary to determine if the defect can be repaired or should be replaced. Sometimes, advances in our understanding of the behavior of historic materials suggest consideration of replacement materials. Materials and Labor The availability of materials and the skill of labor affect decisions regarding the repair or replacement of existing building components. Original materials (such as a specific brick type or color) may be unavailable. It ma y be difficult to locate sources for certain materials and products. Additionally, skilled or trained labor may not be available always. Many buildings have been severely damaged by misguided restoration attempts. The most successful rehabilitation efforts have been completed by knowledgeable workers or workers who are willing to learn and employ proven preservation techniques. In general, tamper as little as possible with historic building materials and design features. Furthermore, be sure that products and procedures utilized in a building project are designed for the proposed use and will solve the specific problem at hand. Also, choose the gentlest means of rehabilitation available. For instance, sandblasting and waterblasting cleaning and paint removal processes have damaged numerous wood and masonry buildings because they are too abrasive for many historic materials. Economics Cost is always a consideration in building maintenance and restoration. Many factors influence construction costs. A building owner must establish a reasonable budget Appendix A Design Manual 113 for the proposed improvements. The most critical structural issues should be addressed prior to aesthetic items. Also, cost analyses such as “repair versus replacement” and “initial price versus life-cycle value” must be considered. The quantity of work, the scale of the improvement project, and material and labor availability will affect costs. Maintenance Every building is potentially immortal. The motto of the United States National Park Service declares: “Preservation is maintenance.” Developing and following a cyclical maintenance schedule for the building is the last step in completing a building improv ement program. Roofs, gutters, paint, mortar joints, sealants and many other building components need to be inspected at frequent regular intervals. Change is inevitable; maintenance is essential. If buildings are properly maintained, they will not need to be restored. Of course, none of these activities occur in a vacuum. Building improvement programs involve many complex interactions and overlapping processes. Some decisions cannot be made until others issues are resolved. The process is not necessarily linear and can be overwhelming if a comprehensive and coherent plan for the restoration or reconstruction of a building is not established. Appendix B 114 Village of Plainfield Appendix B Design Manual 115 Appendix B : Guidelines for the Maintenance and Repair of Historic Buildings Routine maintenance and repair work is the most successful preservation effort. Although, no hard and fast rules exist concerning building repair, some standard approaches have proven successful. A building assessment may be needed to determine the condition and subsequent priorities of building repair. Typically, the first task is to secure a building from water damage by cleaning and repairing the roof and gutters. Next, the foundation and the structure must be maintained in good structural condition. Once these three building elements have been addressed, then the rest of the exterior envelope should be protected from t he elements. The following building components should be regularly evaluated and maintained. Foundation The primary adversary of foundations is water. The foundation of a building is intended to act as waterproof envelope allowing the building to “float” in a sea of wet earth. Approaches to prevent wet basements fall into two categories: interior and exterior. For interior water problems, check for likely sources of water such as leaking plumbing fixtures. For exterior water problems, check for signs of inadequate drainage away from the building at the ground level, penetration of plant material into the building envelope, or inadequate gutters and downspouts. Masonry When the inspection of a building reveals foundation or wall problems, diagnose and correct the source of masonry wall failures before repairing or attempting to repair the wall itself. Before making a decision to clean masonry, assess your reasons for cleaning. Changes in the appearance of the masonry over the years are important to the history and significance of the building. The patina of age is only detrimental if caused by pollutants that are doing actual damage to the masonry. Carefully consider the removal of paint from brick. Historically, some buildings constructed with soft brick were painted to protect the masonry wall. Determine Appendix B 116 Village of Plainfield whether the paint was applied to preserve or hide deteriorated masonry. If the decision is made, after careful consideration, to clean or remove paint from a building, select the gentlest means possible based on: • type of masonry and mortar • age of the building • condition • type of dirt or paint to remove • the results of seve ral test areas. Under no circumstance should masonry be sandblasted. Sandblasting, scraping and other abrasive cleaning may cause damage that may not become evident until the masonry begins to spall or otherwise fail. Also, avoid high-pressure water washing. Water-wash cleaning is, generally, the least damaging to a masonry surface. A simple method is using a garden house and a natural (no wire) brush to clean the surface. Low-pressure water-wash up to 400 psi may also be used. Water-wash methods should only be used where the masonry and joints are in good condition. Chemicals and detergents may also provide effective measures for masonry cleaning. Avoid using muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid) as it may damage the brick. The c hemical and detergents used for masonry cleaning are proprietary and specific to material to be cleaned and the type of dirt to be removed. Extreme caution and care should be taken when using any of these cleaners. Repointing a masonry wa ll is an art that requires a skilled crafts man. Mortar is essential to the performance of the wall and must be place pro perly or the entire wall will fail. Most buildings, constructed prior to 1931, contain some amount of lime in the mortar. Lime was the ingredient that allowed the wall to expand and contract with temperature variations. Lime mortar is also softer than mortars used today and is compatible with softer historic brick. Mortar used in repointing should match the original mortar in color, texture, composition, strengt h and joint type. Avoid using mechanical means to remove old mortar from joints. Tooling the finished mortar joint is essential for the protection of the wall; avoid “buttering” the joint that leads to future mortar failure but also is unattractive. Wood Wood is a remarkably resilient material with a wide variety of characteristics. However, like most materials, wood is susceptible to deterioration. Most wood deterioration occurs from moisture, Appendix B Design Manual 117 fungi, wood-destroying insects, exposure to heat, and exposure to ultraviolet light. The golden rule in wood repair is to remove the source of the problem first. If old wood is very badly deteriorated it can be totally replaced, partially replaced or repaired. In preservation projects the goals should be to retain as much of the original material as possible. Replacing wood “in kind” means that wood should be matched according to: species, quality, cu t, color, grain, and finish. In some instances, the wood may be reinforced with dowels and epoxy reinforcement. Epoxies developed over the la st fifteen years, have been used successfully in repairing damaged wood. Architectural Metals Architectural metals were originally used as inexpensive substitutes for wood or stone and are used in a wide variety of structural and decorative purposes. Architectural metals include: iron, steel, aluminum, copper, copper alloys, zinc, tin, lead and nickel. Before proceeding with any metal rehabilitation, make sure to check the backup material or structural components. Correct the source of any damage prior to proceeding with the metal repair work. Corrosion, or rust, is the biggest problem in metals conservation. There are two ways to prevent corrosion: keep dissimilar metals from coming into contact with one another and use coatings such as paint or zinc to provide protection to exposed metals. Once the appropriate repair is completed, keep all metal surfaces properly painted or finished. Window and Doors Windows and doors greatly affect the appearance of any struct ure. Therefore, repairing, preserving or replacing, these features should be do ne with the utmost care. Very severe window or door deterioration may be the result of some other problem, such as water infiltration through a masonry wall caused by a roof leak. As usual, the source of the problem must be addressed before any door or window repairs are initiated. The repair or replacement of window and door components should match: materials, size and shape of the sash and glazing, configuration and profile of the mullions and muntins, as well as the operation and function of the window or door. Appendix B 118 Village of Plainfield Roofs Water is a building’s primary enemy; the roof is the first line of defense. As a result, the roof should receive the most frequent inspection. A properly maintained roof is the key to the protection and conservation of any building. Check the roof for missing, broken or damaged roofing materials, water stains, bubbles, popped nails, mold or moss growth or other signs of wear. Also, be sure to check flashing, caulk joints, gutters and downspouts for any sign of trouble. Finally, with historic commercial buildings, carefully inspect the flashing at the intersection of the roof and adjacent parapet walls and decorative storefront cornices. Generally, if more than 10 to 15 percent of the roofing material needs repair, the entire roof should be replaced. Appendix B Design Manual 119 Appendix C 120 Village of Plainfield Appendix C Design Manual 121 Appendix C : Selected Definitions Ashlar : rectangular units of dressed stone. Balloon Framing : a wooden building frame having studs that rise the full height of the frame fr om the sill plate to the roof plate with joists nailed to the studs. Baluster : an upright support for a railing. Balustrade : the railing and its balusters. Bargeboard : a decorative board placed along the sloping cornice line a gable roof. Also known as vergeboard. Bay : a structural division of a building. Bay window : a projecting, windowed bay resting on a foundation. Beam : a horizontal structural member. Belt course : a horizontal board or band of masonry that extends across a façade or around a building. Bracket : a member that supports a cantilevered element. Bulkhead : see “kickplate.” Cantilever : a projecting section, beam, or upper floor. Capital : the upper-most part of a column or other support. Chamfer : a beveled edge or corner. Clapboard : a thin horizontal board with a thicker lower edge used as siding. Also known as beveled or lapped siding. Column : a vertical support, usually round, normally having three parts: base shaft and capital. Contributing Building or Structure : adds to either the understanding or interpretation of historic buildings, sites or districts and ma y include buildings with marginal architectural integrity Coping : a protective cap – often stone, terra cotta, or glazed tile – placed along the top of a masonry wall to protect it from water damage. Corbel : a supporting projection or a series of masonry projections, each stepped farther out from the plane of the wall. Cornice : any molded horizontal projection that crowns or finishes the top of a wall where it me ets the edge of the roof. Appendix C 122 Village of Plainfield Cupola : a structure on a roof or dome, often set on a circular or polygonal base at the ridge of a r oof, may serve as a belfry; often glazed to provide light in spaces below or louvered for ventilation in that space. Dentil : a single rectangular member or a row of small, tooth-like blocks use as a decorative element. Dormer : a structure usua lly gabled that projects from a roof. Entablature : the horizontal member of classical architecture comprising the architrave, frieze, and cornice. Façade : a principal face or front of a building. Fascia : the lowest member of a classical cornice; the vertical face of an eave that may support a gutter. Fenestration : the arrangement and proportion of window and doors in the wall of a building. Flashing : a sheet, usually of metal, used to make an intersection of materials weathertight. Frieze : the middle portion, frequently ornamented, of a classical entablature. Gable : the triangular part of an end wall under the pitched roof. Gable roof : a single pitched roof having a gable at each end. Hipped roof : a roof having a slope on all four sides; a hip is the line of meeting of two of these slopes. Historically Significant Building or Structure : more than 30 years old (50 years old for listing on the National Register of Historic Places) that either retains a high degree of architectural integrity or is asso ciated with significant events or persons in the community. Hoodmold : the projecting molding located above a door or window. Houndstooth : brick laid diagonally with its corner projecti ng from the wall. Illinois Historic Preservation Agency (IHPA): an Illinois government organization that reviews nominations to the National Register of Historic Places; provides technical preservation assistance to and reviews development projects that may affect buildings, structures, objects, districts and sites which are of national, state or local significance. Integrity : a measure of the authenticity of a property’s historic identity, Appendix C Design Manual 123 evidenced by the survival of physical characteristics that existed during the property’s historic or pre-historic period in comparison with its unaltered state; criteria considered include association, design, feeling, location and materials. Jamb : the side of a doorway or window opening. Keystone : the top member of an arch. Kickplate : a panel below a display window in a storefront; typically made of wood panels but may be masonry or metal. Landmarks Preservation Council of Illinois (LPCI): a statewide, non-profit private organization chartered to encourage the preservation of buildings, objects and sites that have been significant in Illinois history. Lintel : a beam supported on vertical posts at its ends. Mullion : a vertical member separating panes of glass in a window or panels in a door. Muntin : a secondary horizontal or vertical framing member separating planes of glass in a window or door. National Register of Historic Places : a government organization that maintains lists and files of documentation of buildings, structures, objects, districts and sites which are of national, state or local significance. National Trust for Historic Preservation (NTHP): a national, non-profit private organization chartered by Congress to encourage public participation in the preservation of buildings, objects and sites that have been significant in American history. Non-contributing Building or Structure: does not add to either the understanding or interpretation of historic buildings, sites or districts; no longer possesses archit ectural integrity; or is less than 30 years old. Oriel : a bay window that projects from the face of a wall, usually cantilevered or corbelled out from the building; may be square, round or polygonal; often was finished with an ornamental roof on 19th century commercial buildings. Parapet : a low wall projecting above the roofline. Pediment : a triangular or curved gable above a window, door or wall. Period of Significance : based upon documentation, the span of time a building or structure is deemed to have become noteworthy based on Appendix C 124 Village of Plainfield architecture, events, association with significant people, etc.; often begins with date of construction or significant modification. Platform framing : a wooden building frame having studs one story high, each story resting on the top plates of the story below. Also ca lled western frame. Preservation : the act or process of applying measures to sustain the existing form, shape, details, material, and/or integrity of a build ing or structure. Rock-faced : stone that has a natural undressed surface; also concrete block that has been molded to resemble undressed stone. Reconstruction : is the act or process of reproducing by new construction the exact details and form of a building or detail that no longer exists. Rehabilitation : is the act or process of returning a building or structure to a state of utility with minimal changes while preserving features that are historically, architecturally or culturally significant. Renovation : is the act of repairing and changing an existing building for modern use so that it is functionally equal to a new building with or without respect to historic features. Restoration : is the act or process of accurately recovering the form or details of a building or stru cture as it appeared at a particular time or during a particular era. Sash : a frame designed to hold window glass. Sill : the horizontal member located at the top a foundation: also used to describe the horizontal member at the bottom of an opening. Soffit : the underside of an architectural element such as an overhang. Spandre l: the surface at the side of an arch; in frame structures the spandrel is the blank space between windows in different stories Spire : any tall, sharply-pointed rooflike construction atop a building, steeple, tower, etc. Stabilization : is the act or process of applying measures designed to re-establish a weather-resistant or structurally sound enclosure. Steeple : a tall, ornamental structure, usually topped by a spir e; often built on a church tower or cupola. Appendix C Design Manual 125 Storefront : the street-level façade of a commercial building, usually having display windows. Storefront Bay: division of a building facade into distinct units along the pedestrian sidewalk; the streetlevel division of larger buildings into two or more leasable spaces (“storefronts”) at the street level: in Plainfield, between 21’-0” and 25’-0” Storefront Cornice or Lintel : the horizontal beam (usually cast iron or stone) above the stor efront transoms that separates the display windows from the upper portion of the building. Terra cotta : molded clay fired and used for wall surfaces and ornamental details; may be either glazed or unglazed. Transom : a small operable or fixed window set above a door or window. Water table : a belt course projecting above a foundation to direct water away from it. Will County Historic Preservation Commission (WCHPC): a county-wide, government commission charged with educating the public about historic preservation; identifying and recommending recognition for area landmarks; and encouraging the preservation of buildings, objects and sites that have been significant in the history of and which exist in the unincorporated areas of Will County. Appendix D 126 Village of Plainfield Appendix D Design Manual 127 Appendix D: Residential Architectural Styles & Building Types Common to Plainfield, Illinois Gothic Revival : (circa 1840–1880). Steeply pitched roof, usually with steep cross gables; gables commonly have decorated vergeboards (bargeboards); windows commonly extend into gables, frequently having pointed arch (Gothic) shape; one story porch usually present. Greek Revival: Gabled or hipped roof cornice line and porch roofs emphasized with a wide band of trim; facade corners sometimes identified by a corner board; front door typically surrounded by narrow sidelights and rectangular line of transom lights above; frequently found with porches, either entry or full facade. Appendix D 128 Village of Plainfield Italianate: (circa 1840-1885). Two or three stories; low-pitched roof, usually hipped, with widely overhanging eaves having decorative brackets beneath; tall, narrow windows, commonly arched or curved above; windows frequently with elaborate hood molds; can have square cupola or tower; small porches may be present; sits prominently above grade on a limestone foundation. Second Empire: (circa 1860-1890). Distinctive Mansard roof; dormer windows may be present on the steep lower slope of the roof; molded cornices bound the upper and lower edge of the steep roof slope; widely overhanging eaves having decorative brackets; iron creating common at main and secondary rooflines; may be combined with the Gothic Revival or Italianate details; sits prominently above grade on a limestone foundation . Appendix D Design Manual 129 Shingle Style: (circa 1880-1900). Wall cladding (most time only second story) and roof cladding of continuous wood shingles; shingled walls without interruption at corners; asymmetrical facades with irregular, steeply-pitched roofline; porches and dormers are common; windows may be varied and are sometimes recessed at attic gables; sits prominently above grade on a limestone foundation. Queen Anne: (circa 1880-1910). Steeply pitched roof of irregular sharp usually with a dominant front-facing gable; patterned shingles, cutaway bay windows, wall materials of differing textures, and other devices to avoid a smooth-walled appearance; asymmetrical façade with partial or full-width porch usually one story high extended along one or both sides walls; bays, towers, overhangs; sits prominently above grade on a limestone foundation. Appendix D 130 Village of Plainfield Neo-Classical (Classical Revival): (circa 1895-1950). Façade dominated by full0height porch with roof supported by classical columns; columns typically have Ionic or Corinthian capitals; facades show symmetrically balanced window and center door; sits prominently above grade on a limestone foundation. Appendix D Design Manual 131 Four square: Two-story with square or nearly square floor plan; pyramid or hipped roof, one or more centrally placed dormers, roof of dormers usually echoes, main roof form; one-story porch across façade, porch roof usually echoes main form; often references Colonial Revival, Craftsman or Prairie school architectural styles. Bungalow: Small one or one-and-one-half story cottage with low-slung silhouette; gable roof with wide eaves, dormers common; large full-width front porch; multiple windows; frequent use of natural materials. Appendix D 132 Village of Plainfield Side Hall Plan: Two rooms deep and one room wide with sidewall containing a staircases; entrance located to far left or right; gable, gambrel, or low hip roof one to two-and-one-half-stories Upright and Wing: Gable front (upright element) with perpendicular side wing; side wing half to one full story lower in height than upright; t or L-shape floor plan; perpendicular orientation; gable roof; façade entrance located in gable end or side wing often sheltered by a porch. Gabled Ell: Intersecting gable roof and L-shape floor plan, ridgelines of both roofs must be the same height; façade comprises a gable end and a perpendicular side wing of varying dimension; entrance is usually in the wing, sheltered by a porch; one, one-and-one-half, or two stories. Appendix D Design Manual 133 Appendix E 134 Village of Plainfield Appendix E Design Manual 135 Appendix E : Selected Bibliography and Sources for Additional Reading Bach, Ira J . A Guide to Chicago’s Historic Suburbs on Wheels and on Foot . Chicago: Swallow Press, 1981. Brand, Stewart. How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They’re Built. New York: Viking Penguin, 1994. Bucher, Ward . Dictionary of Building Preservation . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1996. Congress for the New Urbanism . Charter of the New Urbanism . New York: McGraw Hill Companies, 1999. Carley, Rachel. The Visual Dictionary of Am erican Domestic Architecture . New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1994. Clifton, James R . Cleaning Stone and Masonry . Philadelphia: ASTM Publications, 1987. Duany, Andres and Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth . Towns and Town-Making Principles . New York: Rizzoli Intern ational Publications, Inc., 1991. Gordon, Stephen C. How to Complete the Ohio Historic Inventory . Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Historic Society, Inc., 1992. Hamlin, Talbot. Greek Revival Architecture in America . New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1964. Harris, Cyril M. American Architecture: An Illustrated Encyclopedia . New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1998. Jester, Thomas C., ed. Twentieth-Century Building Mate rials: History and Conservation . New York: McGraw Hill Companies, 1995. Appendix E 136 Village of Plainfield Katz, Peter . The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community . New York: McGraw Hill Companies, 1994. Kitchen, Judith L. Old Building Owner’s Manual. Ohio Historical Society, Inc., 1983. London, Mark. Masonry: How To Care For Old and Historic Brick and Stone . Washington, D.C: The Preservation Press, 1988. Massey, James C. and Maxwell, Shirley. House Styles in America: The Old House Journal Guide to the Architecture of American Homes . New York: Penguin Putnam Inc., 1996. McAlester Virginia and Lee. A Field Guide to American Houses. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1984. New York Landmarks Conservancy. Historic Building Facades: The Manual for Maintenance and Rehabilitation . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1997. New Urban News . Selected Newsletters 1999 –2000. Ithaca, New York: New Urban News. (www.newurbannews.com) Poore, Patricia , ed. The Old House Journal: Guide to Restoration . New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1992. . Respectful Rehabilitation: Answers To Your Questions About Old Buildings . Washington, D.C.: The Preservation Press, 1982. Rifkind, Carole. A Field Guide to American Architecture . New York: Plume Book, 1980. The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards fo r Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1990. “Village of Plainfield Reconnaissance Survey Re port: Architectural and Historic Resources.” The Urbana Group, 1994. “Village of Plainfield Comprehensive Plan.” Lane Kendig, Inc., 1995. Weaver, Martin. Conserving Buildings . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993. Appendix E Design Manual 137 Appendix F 138 Village of Plainfield Appendix F Design Manual 139 Appendix F: Historic Urban Core Building Inventory , April 2000 Appendix F 140 Village of Plainfield Building Location Historic Contributing Non-contributing Integrity Stories Orig. Mat'ls.Additions Constr. Date Pres. Value UGS IHLS IHSS NRHP Lockport Street 400 - Baptist ChurchX 4 1stuccoyes1915highS/B X Neo-Gothic Revival. Originally salmon-colored stucco; vinyl siding added circa 1983.401 - Wheeler/FazioX4 2brick/stuccoyesca. 1926highS/B Mission/Prairie influences. Remodeled 1977, converted to retail/office use. North addition is stairwell; front porch enclosed with full glass.402 - Baptist Parking Lot Xn/a 0n/an/a 403 - Devin's Hall of FameX2.5 1clapboardnoca. 1900highS Former Doctor/Dentist office. May have been moved (prior to 1904) from corner of Lockport & Illinois Streets. Remodeled 1977.404 - First Midwest Bank Xn/a 1 See 410 Lockport Street Below.405 - Shoppes at 405X4.5 2brick/stucconoca. 1918highS/B X Former Rectory. Mission/Prairie influences. Remodeled 1977, converted to retail/office use. Front porch enclosed with full glass.406 - First Midwest Bank Xn/a 1 See 410 Lockport Street Below.407 - Baci RestaurantX4.5 1+clapboardyes1868highS/B X Built as Universalist Church. Became Catholic Church circa 1909, remodeled 1916-19. Spire dramatically shortened following 1930s-era fire.408 - First Midwest Bank Xn/a 1 See 410 Lockport Street Below.409 - Congreg'l ChurchX4.5 1+clapboardyes1850highS/B XX Oldest church building in Plainfield and Will County. Associated with Abolitionist Movement. Remodeled to Akron Plan in 1906; near original west façade and south entry façade survive. North Addition 1940. Steeple has been remodeled.410 - First Midwest Bank X (addition)1 1brick/stoneyes1915lownone Original building at corner of Lockport & Illinois Streets. Portions of original interior survive. Building extensively remodeled in 1959; later additions also.500 - Café OrleansX 3 2+brick/conc blkyes1898highS/B X Part of the Opera House Square building. Storefront at north and east facades and second floor north windows modified. Oriel window/tower and triangulated pediment modified and/or removed. Original theater space largely intact.501 - AC SteinerX 5 2clapboard1869highS/B X One of three, pre-1870 wood frame commercial buildings to have survived in Lockport Street area. Store operation has continued uninterrupted since construction.502 - Clock Tower AntiquesX 3 2+brick1898highS/B X Part of the Opera House Square building. Storefronts and second floor north windows modified. Original theater space largely intact.503 - Lockport St. GalleryX 4 2brick/cast ironyes1876highS/B X "Centennial Building" Survived 1891 fire. Original cast iron storefront restored. Renovated about 1995; painted brick (soft) could not be cleaned and stucco applied over. Some non-historic windows added at street façade. Wood and brick cornice not restored. Parapet plaque identifies building, builder and year of construction.504 - Clock Tower Antiques See 502 Lockport Street Above.505 - Gourmet JunctionX3 2brick/cer. tileyescirca 1870highS/B X Originally constructed as Fraser & Smiley Grocers (note: F & S inscribed in second floor window lintel keystones). Ceramic tile storefront installed for Krebs Drug Store about 1960.506 - Plfld. Ins. AgencyX2 1brickno1898highS/B X Original storefront significantly remodeled including storefront lintel. Stamped metal parapet cornice survives.507 - Miller's Meat MarketX 4 2brick/cast ironyescirca 1892highS/B X Storefront largely restored circa 1982.508 - Upscale ResaleX4.5 1brick/cast ironnocirca 1900highS/B X "Sonntag Building" Storefront restored circa 1982; stamped metal parapet cornice and pediment with builder's name survive. Note decorative brick parapet wall with corbelled details. Possibly built simultaneously with 510 Lockport Stre et.509 - Coldwell Real EstateX2 1brick/cast ironnocirca 1892highS/B X Originally constructed as Jones Hardware. Storefront remodeled circa 1973.510 - Potter's PlaceX3 1brick/cast ironyescirca 1900highS/B X Original storefront significantly remodeled including storefront lintel. Stamped metal parapet cornice, triangulated pediment and decorative brick parapet wall with corbelled details survive. Possibly built simultaneously with 508 Lockport Street. Building Location Historic Contributing Non-contributing Integrity Stories Orig. Mat'ls.Additions Constr. Date Pres. Value UGS IHLS IHSS NRHP 511 - Coldwell Real EstateX2 1brick/cast ironnocirca 1892highS/B X See 509 Lockport Street Above.512 - Uptown TapX 3 1brick/cast ironnocirca 1885highS/B X May be oldest commercial building on south side of this block. Stamped metal parapet cornice survives.513 - Botanical BirdX 4 2brick/stone/cast ironnocirca 1865/1892highS/B X Original stone sidewalls may have been re-incorporated in new building after 1891 fire. Original parapet remodeled.514 - Steve's GrillX 4 1brick/cast ironyescirca 1900highS/B X Much of original storefront--including cast iron columns--and stamped metal parapet cornice survive. Note decorative brick parapet wall above remodeled storefront.515 - Sunnyside Antiques `X3 2brick/stone/cast ironnocirca 1892highS/B X Original storefront significantly remodeled; second floor replacement windows are incompatible with originals. Note decorative blind arches and terra cotta details.516 - Plfld Foot & AnkleX3.5 1brick/cast ironyescirca 1900highS/B X Original storefront survives below modern façade. Stamped metal parapet cornice survives. Note decorative brick parapet wall.517 - CK&T Corp.X 3 2brick/cast ironyescirca 1892highS/B X Original storefront has been remodeled; second floor largely intact.518 - Sound InvestmentX2 1brick/cast ironyescirca 1900highS/B X Storefront significantly remodeled. Stamped metal parapet cornice survives but is in very poor condition. Upper brick parapet wall is not visible; covered with metal siding. Served as early bowling alley.519 - Enterprise PrintingX4.5 2 "Robertson Building," probably named for builder Daniel Robertson, founder of the E.J.&E. Railroad. Building was extensively renovated to restore original storefront and masonry parapet wall in mid-1980s. Parapet plaque identifies PerryCo, the owner who renovated the building.520 - Sound Investment X2.5 1brick/cast ironnocirca 1900highS/B X Original storefront has been remodeled. Upper brick parapet wall is not visible; covered with wood siding. 521 - Country CompaniesX1.5 1brick/cast ironnocirca 1892highS/B X Original storefront remodeled with Bedford limestone, circa 1960. Upper brick parapet wall is not visible; covered with wood siding.522 - Lincolnway BarberX2 1brick/cast ironnocirca 1900highS/B X Original storefront remodeled with brick, circa 1955. Original upper parapet wall with decorative brickwork survives above storefront lintel. Has continual operated as a barbershop since 1881 by the same family.523 - Vaughn DanceX2.5 1brick/cast ironnocirca 1892highS/B X Original storefront remodeled with Bedford limestone, circa 1960; remodeled with "period-inspired" design circa 1988-9. Upper brick parapet wall survives above storefront lintel.524 - Village Center Xn/a 2brickno1998n/an/a See 530 Lockport Street Below.525 - State Farm InsuranceX3 2brick/cast ironnocirca 1892highS/B X Original storefront remodeled but original cast iron storefront sill and lintel survive. Upper floor windows remodeled but stamped metal roofline cornice with decorative brick corbelling survives.526 - Village Center Xn/a 2brickno1998n/an/a See 530 Lockport Street Below.527 - Playin' Thru/MasonicX4.5 2+brick/cast ironno1892highS/B X Original storefront windows have been modified and second floor windows have been filled with glass block. Significant stamped metal cornice and pediment at roofline, stamped metal oriel window/tower, and cornice wall plaque (identifying building as "Masonic Block"). Only building known to be architect-designed on this block (prior to Village Center): J. E. Minnott, Aurora. 528 - Village Center Xn/a 2brickno1998n/an/a See 530 Lockport Street Below.529 - Playin' Thru/Masonic See 527 Lockport Street Above.530 - Village Center Xn/a 2brickno1998n/an/a Village Center is a 2 story building with underground parking which replaced a vacant lot and a 1940s-era building which burned to the ground in 1996. The building is a successful infill project when viewed from Des Plaines Street but does not relate at all to any of the building facades on Lockport Street, breaking the historic rhythm of the Lockport Street business district character.600 - Andreasen TravelX3.5 1brick/stuccoyes1928highS/B11/13/1984 Built in 1928 as a Standard Oil gas station, the building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Remodeled in 1985, the large replicative addition which overpowers the original building as well as the insensitive architectural adaptation of the building greatly jeopardized its listing on the Register.601 - Hand Sewn TouchX4 2brickno1912highS/B Built by Mr. Corke (a confectioner and cigar manufacturer) in anticipation of The Lincoln Highway and increased business exposure. Replaced an earlier, wood-framed building.602 - The Courtyard X (addition)n/a 1wood-frame/stuccono1985lown/a Replicative addition to 600 Lockport Street - See Above.603 - Village LiquorsX 4 2clapboardyescirca 1850highS/B Oldest commercial building on Lockport Street and is typical of the construction prior to the late 19th century Building Location Historic Contributing Non-contributing Integrity Stories Orig. Mat'ls.Additions Constr. Date Pres. Value UGS IHLS IHSS NRHP fires. Large masonry addition to rear/north side is largely hidden from Lockport Street.604 - The Courtyard X (addition)n/a 1wood-frame/stuccono1985lown/a See Above.605 - Parking Lot Xn/a 0n/an/a 606 - Village Parking Lot Xn/a 0n/an/a 607 - Vill. Liq. Parking Lot Xn/a 0n/an/a 608 - Realty ExecutivesX4.5 1brickno1910highS/B See 610 Lockport Street Below.609 - Plfld. Pet Grooming X3.5 1brickyescirca 1900highS/B Built as Plainfield Fire Department and later remodeled and enlarged for police station. Originally matched old Village Hall at 606 Lockport Street (razed circa 1985). Brick is deteriorating at sidewalls.610 - Tobin Medical Bill'gX4.5 1brickno1910highS/B Built in 1910 as machine shop for Sidney Gray; north façade largely restored in 1997.611 - no listing 612 - Village Flower/KrahnX3.5 2brickno1894highS/B Early industrial building. Utilized timbers from Old Red Mill (1835-1894) in construction. Wagner & Son manufactured miniature steam engines here from early 1900s until 1975. Building first renovated in 1977; art glass windows and apartments added about 1984.613 - Klover & CompanyX1 1wood-framedyescirca 1893lown/a Although rumored to have been a sleeping room at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago, no historical evidence has supported this claim. The building has been significantly remodeled.614 - no listing 615 - Auto Parts Center Xn/a 1metal/glass/bricknocirca 1975nonenone Modern commercial building with little architectural interest.616 - no listing 617 - Auto Parts Center Xn/a 1metal/glass/bricknocirca 1975nonenone See 615 Lockport Street Above.618 - no listing 619 - no listing 620 - Bristol Grove/Apts.X1 1.5clapboardyescirca 1845nonenone Residence extensively remodeled.621 - no listing 622 - no listing 623 - Peyla Electric/Apts.X1 2clapboardyescirca 1850nonenone Residence extensively remodeled 624 - no listing 625 - no listing 626 - no listing 627 - Ameritech Xn/a 1+masonrynocirca 1959nonenone Telephone exchange building. Building is setback an unusually large distance from Lockport Street.700 - no listing 701 - Lombardo'sX4 2clapboardyescirca 1850highS/B X Former residence converted to restaurant 1996-7; renovation retained most of the Lockport Street architectural character of the original building.702 - no listing 703 - Private Resid./Apts.X3 2clapboardnocirca 1895highS/B Original character concealed by synthetic siding. Residence is large enough to be adaptable for commercial/retail or business uses.704 - no listing 705 - Private ResidenceX5 1bricknocirca 1920highS/B Residence is good example of early twentieth century bungalow. Re-locate?706 - Private ResidenceX 5 1.5clapboardnocirca 1870highB X Building Location Historic Contributing Non-contributing Integrity Stories Orig. Mat'ls.Additions Constr. Date Pres. Value UGS IHLS IHSS NRHP Residence is a good example of mid-nineteenth century working class homes in Plainfield. Near-original condition. Re-locate?707 - Private ResidenceX2 1clapboardnocirca 1925lownone Residence is not a remarkable building.708 - Private ResidenceX 3 1clapboard/shingle (?)yescirca 1880highB X Residence is a rare example of working class cottages in Plainfield of this period. Re-locate?709 - Industrial/officeX 3 1+/2brickyes1904highS/B Built for the Aurora, Plainfield & Joliet Railway, this building served as the central maintenance shop. It is the only building associated with the streetcar lines since the 1990 tornado. Numerous additions obscure the original twin-bay building at the center of the complex. The original building is largely intact. If additions removed, building would qualify for listing on the National Register of Historic Places.710 - no listing 711 - Mikey's Hot Dogs X2 1+bricknocirca 1946lownone Unremarkable 1940s-era office/industrial building.712 - Private Residence Xn/a 1.5clapboard/stonenocirca 1950lownone Architecturally insignificant, non-historic residence.713 - no listing 714 - no listing 715 - no listing 716 - no listing 717 - no listing 718 - no listing 719 - no listing 720 - no listing 721 - no listing 722 - no listing 723 - no listing 724 - no listing 725 - Dental Assocs. - Plfld.Xn/a 2bricknocirca 1975n/an/a James Street 601 - Elite EssenceX5 2clapboardyescirca 1890highS/B Residence converted to commercial use; retains historic architectural appearance.602 - Private Residence Xn/a 1.5clapboardyescirca 1940nonenone Residence contributes little to street character. Building has been sided with synthetic siding; retains little integrity. Rebuilt following 1990 tornado.603 - Private Residence X4 1stuccoyescirca 1920lownone Small, well-kempt residence but adds little to street character. No discernable architectural features.604 - Private Residence Xn/a 1.5clapboardyescirca 1940nonenone Residence contributes little to street character. Building has been sided with synthetic siding; retains little integrity. Rebuilt following 1990 tornado.605 - Private ResidenceX4.5 2clapboardyes?circa 1900highS/B This imposing Classical Revival house is unique to Plainfield. Very well-maintained. Could be converted for use as retail, office or restaurant.607 - Hayes Realty/Apts.X2.5 2clapboardyescirca 1900lowS Former residence converted to office space circa 1972. Numerous remodelings have resulted in a loss of integrity.608 - Private Residence Xn/a 1.5vinylno1991lownone New construction following 1990 tornado. Although nicely proportioned, no relationship to historic architecture.609 - no listing 610 - Conklin Chiropractic Xn/a 1+brick/eifsno1990lownone Building Location Historic Contributing Non-contributing Integrity Stories Orig. Mat'ls.Additions Constr. Date Pres. Value UGS IHLS IHSS NRHP Contemporary medical clinic/office. No relationship to historic architecture or orientation to Lockport Street.Fox River Street 600 - Private ResidenceX 4 2clapboardyescirca 1860highS/B One of four Gothic-Italianate hybrid residences remaining in Village. Retains significant level of integrity; largely unaltered. Front porch enclosed circa 1930; cement-asbestos siding installed circa 1940. Located in the original Town of Plainfield as platted in 1834. Retains residential character around Village Green.601 - no listing 602 - no listing 603 - no listing 604 - Private Resid./VaughnX 3 2clapboardyescirca 1870highS/B T-plan residence with Eastlake window lintels. Retains significant level of integrity; although vinyl siding is a detraction. Numerous additions. Located in the original Town of Plainfield as platted in 1834. Retains residential character around Village Green.605 - Private ResidenceX4.5 2clapboardyescirca 1900highS/B Classical Revival house in near original condition; large addition to rear does not alter original character significantly. Located in the original Town of Plainfield as platted in 1834. Retains residential character around Village Green.606 - Private ResidenceX 4 2clapboardyes1851highS/B Greek Revival residence originally located on Division Street; constructed as the second school for the South District. Moved to this location in 1882. Although reversible, vinyl siding and color scheme detract from the original character. Located in the original Town of Plainfield as platted in 1834. Retains residential character around Village Green.607 - Private Residence Xn/a 1clapboardnocirca 1955nonenone Modern infill residence with no relationship to historic architecture.608 - Private ResidenceX4 2clapboardyes1900highS/B T-plan residence. Porch enclosed with glass, exterior has been covered with vinyl siding.Des Plaines Street 511 - Private ResidenceX 3 2clapboardyescirca 1850highS/B Large home for period; numerous Greek Revival details survive despite the synthetic siding.600 - Bakery ProductsXX (Additions)1 1brickyescirca 1950lowS Early 1950 storefront still visible although remodeled. No remarkable architectural characteristics. Provides street presence. Additions are industrial in nature and 1+ or 2 stories in height.601 - ARRIS Architects 602 - CK Design Parking Lot X0 0n/an/an/anonenone Original site of public bathhouse, circa 1850.603 - Quality Mailing X1 1brick/conc.. blocknocirca 1958lowS Built as farm implement store; remodeled 1999 to have more historically-sympathetic storefront.604 - CK Design/Apts.X 3 2timber frame/wood(removed)circa 1845highS/B Remodeled in 1990. Façade design retained little of historic character. Originally built as Livery Stable; last remaining building of type in Plainfield or surrounding area.605 - Village Center See 530 Lockport Street.606 - Village Parking Lot X0 0n/an/an/anonenone 702 - Peterson Law X4 1brickyescirca 1950lownone Modern Era building with little architectural distinction for its period.703 - Plfld. Fire District Xn/a 2+brickyescirca 1940/1980lownone Original non-descript building was enlarged and remodeled about 1980. Architectural design does not relate to scale or character of Lockport Street corridor.704 - Whitley & Maloney X4 1bricknocirca 1950lownone Modern Era building with little architectural distinction for its period.705 - PFPD Parking Lot X0 0n/an/an/anonenone Surface parking lot serves Fire District.706 - Private ResidenceX 3 2clapboardyescirca 1880highB X High style Italianate residence; ornate bracketed cornice removed when synthetic siding Building Location Historic Contributing Non-contributing Integrity Stories Orig. Mat'ls.Additions Constr. Date Pres. Value UGS IHLS IHSS NRHP installed and porch enclosed in mid 1970s. Much other detail survives. Unsympathetic addition added to rear. Unique privy remains behind residence. Re-locate?707 - PFPD Parking Lot X0 0n/an/an/anonenone Surface parking lot serves Fire District.708 - no listing 709 - Village Valet / Apts.Xn/a 2bricknocirca 1978lownone Poor infill building with little architectural interest.710 - Private ResidenceX 3 1+clapboardnocirca 1855highB X One of four Gothic Revival-Italianate hybrid residences in the Village. Building remodeled about 1920; some of original detail removed. Current renovation efforts have returned much of the original character although porch and shutters are inappropriate. Re-locate?800 - Vacant Lot Xn/a 0n/an/an/anonenone Recently cleared by Village of Plainfield. Former historic residence was in poor condition with little integrity.801 - Private Residence X4 1clapboardnocirca 1960low S Ranch style home with nice landscaping; does not relate to historic character of Lockport Street corridor. Provides important presence at street corner.802 - Vacant Lot Xn/a 0n/an/an/anonenone Recently cleared by Village of Plainfield. Former historic residence was in poor condition with little integrity.803 - no listing 804 - Vacant Lot Xn/a 0n/an/an/anonenone Recently cleared by Village of Plainfield. Former historic residence was in poor condition but retained a fair degree of integ rity.805 - no listing 806 - Private ResidenceX4.5 1.5clapboard/shinglesyescirca 1895highS/B Excellent example of small Shingle Style residence. Well-preserved and maintained.807 - Private ResidenceX3.5 2clapboardyescirca 1875highS/B X Excellent example of Italianate T-plan house; original details such as window hoods survive despite installation of vinyl sidin g.808 - Private ResidenceX4.5 2clapboard/stuccoyescirca 1915highS/B Excellent example of Mission-influenced Four Square residence. Retains nearly all of original architectural character.809 - Private ResidenceX3 2clapboardyescirca 1895mod.S Simple residence of late 19th century (similar to 703 Lockport Street). Remodelings and additions have sacrificed a great deal of integrity; porch is remodeled. Some original details survive.810 - Private Resid. / Apts.X 3 1.5clapboardyescirca 1880 ?mod.none Synthetic siding covers the original architecture; although exterior appearance seems to have been altered little.811 - Private ResidenceX2 1.5clapboardyescirca 1860lownone Building heavily remodeled in early 1970s; little integrity remains.812 - no listing 813 - no listing 814 - no listing 815 - Vacant Lot Xn/a 0n/an/an/anonenone 816 - no listing 817 - Private ResidenceX 4 1.5brick/clapboardnocirca 1920highS Although synthetic siding has been installed, most of the original building is intact.Illinois Street 600 - Methodist ChurchX4.5 2+limestoneyes1866highS/B X Third building for this congregation. Stone quarried locally. Additions to west (circa 1940) and north (circa 1969); west addition more successful than north addition.601 - Bank One Xn/a 1bricknocirca 1963highS Modern Colonial Revival bank facility.602 - Methodist Church Xn/a 2+stonenocirca 1969lowS Modern addition with little relationship to historic church or architectural character of Lockport Street corridor.603 - Bank One Xn/a 1bricknocirca 1963highS Modern Colonial Revival bank facility.604 - Methodist Church Xn/a 2+stonenocirca 1969lowS Modern addition with little relationship to historic church or architectural character of Lockport Street corridor.605 - First Midwest Bank See 410 Lockport Street Building Location Historic Contributing Non-contributing Integrity Stories Orig. Mat'ls.Additions Constr. Date Pres. Value UGS IHLS IHSS NRHP 606 - Café Orleans (Add'n)X1 1 See 500 Lockport Street. Concrete block building is in poor condition and is not sympathetic with the historic character of the building to which it is attached.704 - Kelly's Special Image X1 1clapboardnocirca 1959lownone Former modern church building converted to commercial use.705 - Plainfield LibraryX3.5 1+brickyes1941highS/B Original portion of the library facility. Expansion of library removed many of the historic features of the original library building. See Below.706 - Private Residence X1 1clapboardyescirca 1925lownone Small, non-descript bungalow. Little integrity remains.707 - Plainfield LibraryXn/a 1+brickno1993n/an/a New addition has little relationship to scale of original building; original library is lost and overpowered.708 - Private Resid. / Apts.X3 2clapboardyescirca 1870mod.S Synthetic siding conceals much of original character although significant details remain.709 - Plainfield Library Xn/a 1+brickno1993n/an/a New addition has little relationship to scale of original building; original library is lost and overpowered.710 - Private Resid. / Apts.X3 2clapboard/stuccoyescirca 1915mod.S Synthetic siding conceals much of original character although significant details remain. Enclosure of front porch is not sympathetic and is unfortunate.711 - Plainfield Library Xn/a 1+brickno1993n/an/a New addition has little relationship to scale of original building; original library is lost and overpowered.712 - Private ResidenceX3 1+clapboardno?circa 1890highS/B X Synthetic siding conceals much of original character although significant details remain. Enclosure of front porch is not sympathetic and is unfortunate.713 - Library Parking Lot X0 0 Landscape buffer helps soften impact of surface parking lot.714 - Private ResidenceX3 1+clapboardyes?circa 1890highS/B X Synthetic siding conceals much of original character. Enclosure of front porch is not sympathetic and is unfortunate.715 - Village Parking Lot X0 0n/an/an/anone none 716 - no listing 717 - Village Parking Lot X0 0n/an/an/anonenone 718 - no listing 719 - Village Parking Lot X0 0n/an/an/anonenone 720 - no listing 721 - Private Resid. / Apts.X1.5 2clapboardyescirca 1880lowS Synthetic siding conceals much of original character. Converted to apartments in early 1970s. Important to have building mass at the street corner.800 - Vacant Lot 801 - no listing 802 - Private ResidenceX 4 2clapboardno?circa 1890highS/B X Although synthetic siding conceals some of the details of this house, most of the original character is recognizable. No significant alterations. This block has two pairs of identical houses; this house was identical to the house at 806 Illinois Street.803 - Private Residence Xn/a 1clapboardno?circa 1955lownone This ranch house does not relate to the historic architecture or established setbacks of the neighborhood.804 - no listing 805 - no listing 806 - Private ResidenceX3.5 2clapboardyescirca 1890highS/B X This house has had numerous additions and modifications made to the original design; however, the original character is still discernable. This block has two pairs of identical houses; this house was identical to the house at 802 Illinois Street.807 - Private ResidenceX1.5 2clapboardyescirca 1870lowS X This residence has been remodeled and altered; much of the original integrity has been lost.Poor use of siding materials (wood shingles, synthetic siding, wood siding) add to the loss of integrity.808 - no listing 809 - Apartments Xn/a 2bricknocirca 1955n/anone See Below. Building Location Historic Contributing Non-contributing Integrity Stories Orig. Mat'ls.Additions Constr. Date Pres. Value UGS IHLS IHSS NRHP 810 - Private ResidenceX3 1.5clapboardyescirca 1870highS/B X Synthetic siding conceals much of the original character of this residence; the enclosed front porch eliminates a historic connection to the street. This block has two pairs of identical houses; this house was identical to the house at 812 Illinois Street.811 - Apartments Xn/a 2bricknocirca 1955n/anone See Below.812 - Private ResidenceX 4 1.5clapboardnocirca 1870highS/B Original siding has been maintained; the enclosed front porch retains a historic connection to the street. This block has two pairs of identical houses; this house was identical to the house at 810 Illinois Street. 813 - Apartments Xn/a 2bricknocirca 1955n/anone Modern apartment building which has no relationship to historic character of the neighborhood or surrounding residences.Division Street 500 - no listing 501 - Selfridge/PetkaX2 2clapboardyes1886highB Building was moved in 1986; new location does not replicate original site so building orientation is not directed to corner as originally built. Front porch, front door and foundation heights do not match original. Important house locally because built by A.T. Corbin who operated what is now known as A.C. Steiner Shop. Corbin's boyhood home (1852) stands on Joliet Road also. Converted to office use about 1987.502 - DMIX Building was covered with vinyl siding about 1980. Very similar to 501 Division Street. Original cornice details covered by vinyl siding also. Original porch removed; current porch was constructed circa 1915 by U.S. G. Blakely, the man responsible for routing The Lincoln Highway through the village. Converted to office use about 1996.503 - Private ResidenceX 1 1clapboard?yescirca 1845highB One part of this building is the original South (Lower) District school which stood at 510 Division Street until 1851 when moved to become part of this residence. May be one of the oldest school buildings remaining in Will County. The remainder of the house is of little historical significance.504 - no listing 505 - Private ResidenceX 3 2clapboard/conc.. blockno?circa 1915highS/B Good example of Classical Revival residential architecture in Plainfield; one of the best surviving examples of a concrete block porch. Original windows remain; other details may remain beneath synthetic siding.506 - Private ResidenceX 4 2clapboardyescirca 1885highS/B Italianate residence with carry-over Greek Revival influences. Unfortunate addition to rear; however most original details rema in.507 - Private ResidenceX 2 2clapboardyescirca 1860mod.S Upright and Wing with Greek Revival elements. Enclosed porch and synthetic siding detract from original character.508 - no listing 509 - no listing 510 - Private Resid. / Apts.X 4 2clapboardnocirca 1885highS/B Italianate residence with carry-over Greek Revival influences; later Classical Revival porch details. Some minor window remodeling but original siding is exposed. Original site of South (Lower) District School; site of first two school buildings now located at 503 Division and 606 Fox River Streets, respectively. May have been home of McClester family who donated money to establish local public library.600 - NLSB Parking Lot X0 0n/an/an/anonenone 601 - NLSB Bank Xn/a 1+bricknocirca 1992n/an/a Modern banking facility.602 - NLSB Parking Lot X0 0n/an/an/anonenone 603 - NLSB Bank See Above.604 - Private Residence X0 2conc. Blocknocirca 1940lownone Building has no distinguishing features.605 - NLSB Bank See Above.606 - Baptist Church OfficeX1 1stuccoyescirca 1920lownone Former residence which has been connected to the Baptist Church and converted for church use.607 - NLSB Bank See Above.700 - no listing 701 - Central School Add'nX4 1brickyes1960highS/B Building Location Historic Contributing Non-contributing Integrity Stories Orig. Mat'ls.Additions Constr. Date Pres. Value UGS IHLS IHSS NRHP Addition to 1949 school building. Windows have been remodeled without sensitivity to original architecture.702 - no listing 701 - Central School Add'nX4 1brickyes1960highS/B Addition to 1949 school building. Windows have been remodeled without sensitivity to original architecture.704 - Reel 'em InnX1 2clapboardyescirca 1874lownone Former residence converted to retail shops and bakery in 1978 as part of The Meeting Place. Subsequent remodelings and additions have resulted in the loss of original façade and most significant architectural details.705 - Central School Add'nX4 1brickyes1968-9highS Addition to 1949 school building. Windows have been remodeled without sensitivity to original architecture.706 - Private Resid./VacantX4.5 2clapboardnocirca 1905highS/B Near original residence. Very good example of early twentieth century residential architecture in Plainfield. Building demolished during the course of this study.707 - no listing 708 - Private ResidenceX 4 1.5clapboardyescirca 1850highS/B X Early Upright and Wing residence with Greek Revival details. Typical of early Plainfield architecture; one of earliest residences on Division Street in north Plainfield.709 - Private ResidenceX1 1.5clapboardyescirca 1880?lowS Some original details survive; however, much of original character is not visible below synthetic siding.710 - no listing 711 - no listing 712 - Private ResidenceX 4 1.5clapboardyescirca 1850highS/B Early Upright and Wing residence with Greek Revival details. Large addition to rear does not detract from original character and scale of the building. Front porch and shutters not original but other period details survive. Typical of early Plainfield architecture; one of earliest residences on Division Street in north Plainfield.713 - Private ResidenceX2.5 1.5clapboard?yescirca 1850lowS Early vernacular residence with little defining architectural style. Side porch is a remodeling; original details concealed by synthetic siding.714 - no listing 715 - Private Residence Xn/a 1clapboardyes?circa 1955?lownone Non-conforming ranch house.716 - Private Resid. / Apts.X1 1.5clapboardyescirca 1850lowB X Prior to remodelings, this house was another early Upright and Wing with Greek Revival details. Numerous remodelings and installation of synthetic siding have destroyed the architectural integrity.717 - no listing 718 - Private Resid. / Apts.X3 2clapboardyescirca 1880mod.S Gabled ell or T-plan residence; synthetic siding conceals much of original architecture.719 - Private ResidenceX 2 1.5clapboardyescirca 1850modB Early street-facing gable residence with Greek Revival details. Simple residence typical of early Plainfield; may be earliest home on east side of Lockport Street. Rear addition does not significantly alter original appearance of home; however, much of original detail is concealed below synthetic siding.720 - Private ResidenceX4 2clapboard/stucco?yescirca 1940modS The appearance of this building prior to 1940 is unknown; date of original construction also unknown. Building remodeled to current appearance by Harold and Hazel Yahnkee about 1940.721 - Private ResidenceX 5 2+clapboardyes?circa 1905highS/B This residence is one of Plainfield's best examples of Classical Revival domestic architecture. Imposing house has been maintained in near-original condition.722 - Private ResidenceX 3 1.5clapboardyescirca 1850modS/B X Early Upright and Wing residence with Greek Revival details. Large addition to rear does not detract from original character and scale of the building. Much or original character concealed by synthetic siding. Typical of early Plainfield architecture; one of earliest residences on Division Street in north Plainfield.723 - no listing 724 - no listing 725 - Private ResidenceX4.5 2clapboardno?circa 1905highS/B Classical Revival residence similar in massing to 721 Division Street.726 - no listing 727 - no listing Building Location Historic Contributing Non-contributing Integrity Stories Orig. Mat'ls.Additions Constr. Date Pres. Value UGS IHLS IHSS NRHP 728 - no listing 729 - Private Resid. / Apts?X3 2clapboardyescirca 1905modS/B Private residence converted to Luce Funeral Home about 1940. Returned to residential use about 1960. Numerous additions and modifications have altered the original character of the residence.730 - Memorial Park n/a 0n/an/a1956highn/a 731 - no listing 732 - Memorial Park n/a 0n/an/a1956highn/a 733 - Private ResidenceX 5 1bricknocirca 1930?highB Built about 1940, this is a classic and well-kempt early twentieth century bungalow; note distinctive arched side porch which is part of the overall building mass.800 - Private ResidenceX 5 2bricknocirca 1940highS/B This Colonial Revival residence is a good example of mid-twentieth century residential design. The well-maintained, landscaped yard is one of Plainfield's finest in the historic core area.801 - no listing 802 - no listing 803 - Private ResidenceX 4 1.5clapboardyescirca 1850highS/B Early Upright and Wing residence with Greek Revival details. Typical of early Plainfield architecture; one of earliest residences on Division Street in north Plainfield. Original clapboard exposed.804 - no listing 805 - Private Residence Xn/a 1clapboardyes?circa 1955?lownone Non-conforming ranch house.806 - Private ResidenceX 4 2clapboardno?circa 1925highS/B This is one of Plainfield's few Dutch Colonial residences. Building survives in excellent condition.807 - no listing 808 - Private ResidenceX4 1.5brickno?circa 1925modB This is a modest brick residence with English Cottage influences. Rare in Plainfield.809 - no listing 810 - Private ResidenceX4 1.5brickno?circa 1940modnone Non-descript brick bungalow.811 - no listing 812 - no listing 813 - Private ResidenceX3 2shingleyescirca 1900modS Simple residence with decorative shingle siding; large addition to south overpowers original architectural character.814 - no listing 815 - no listing 816 - no listing 817- Private Residence X4 1clapboardnocirca 1955lownone Non-conforming ranch home.818 - no listing 819 - Herbst, Maloney & BrX3.5 2brickyescirca 1925lowS Craftsman-influenced residence which was converted to a business office about 1994. North porch has been enclosed.Building is not an outstanding example of Craftsman design in Plainfield Arnold Street 726 - Private ResidenceX2 2clapboardyes?circa 1900modS Synthetic siding conceals most of the original architectural character; may have exhibited Classical Revival details similar to neighbors along Division Street.800 - Private ResidenceX3 1.5clapboardyescirca 1900highS Large addition to rear which fronts along Oak Street detracts from original character; synthetic siding conceals much of the original architecture. Building Location Historic Contributing Non-contributing Integrity Stories Orig. Mat'ls.Additions Constr. Date Pres. Value UGS IHLS IHSS NRHP 801 - no listing 802 - Private ResidenceX4.5 1.5conc. block / shinglenocirca 1900highS/B Well-preserved example of early residential application of concrete block; few examples survive in Plainfield. Upper wall and gable is finished in original wood shingle.803 - no listing 804 - Private ResidenceX4.5 1.5clapboardnocirca 1900highS/B Simple, vernacular house from the turn-of-the-century; continues architectural rhythm of the street.805 - no listing 806 - Private Residence Xn/a 1brick / woodnocirca 1970n/anone Modern ranch residence.807 - Private Residence X1.5 1.5clapboardyescirca 1870lownone Numerous remodelings and additions have sacrificed architectural integrity.808 - Private Residence Xn/a 1brick / woodnocirca 1970n/anone Modern ranch residence.809 - Private ResidenceX1.5 1clapboardyescirca 1850lownone This residence is a rare type in Plainfield: cubic plan, hipped roof Greek Revival. However, numerous modern-era remodelings and additions--as well as an 1870s-era attempt to add Italianate details--have destroyed most of the building's integrity. The basic exterior shell of the hipped roof cottage remains and is noteworthy for its architectural type . The building was moved from 217 Main Street in the early 1920s.Main Street 405 - Dunn, Martin & MillerX 5 2clapboardno1841highS/B X 11/14/1991 Historic Greek Revival home of early pioneer family (Jason & Lucy Flanders). Listed on National Register 1991; restoration and conversion to offices completed in 1993. One of earliest homes still standing in Plainfield; outstanding example of Greek Revival architecture in the Village.406 - First Midwest ATM Xn/a n/aprecast conc.nocirca 1988nonenone Modern drive-thru banking facility; significant landscaping.407 - Vacant Lot Xn/a 0n/an/an/an/anone 408 - Private Residence X3 1clapboardnocirca 1955lownone Non-conforming ranch home; no architectural significance.409 - Dr. Sam/Streitz Xn/a 1bricknocirca 1980nonenone Non-descript medical clinic; the materials, design or color is complimentary to the historic architecture of Main Street.410 - Private Residence Xn/a 1cement boardnocirca 1950nonenone Non-conforming ranch home; only architectural significance is the unique cement siding.411 - no listing 412 - Private Resid. / Apts.X3.5 1.5asphalt shinglesyescirca 1837highS/B X Earliest commercial building in Plainfield: Cobbler Shop. One of oldest buildings in the Village; served as both residence and business. Vernacular structure with Greek Revival details.413 - no listing 414 - no listing 415 - Peace Lutheran X3 1+stoneyes1959highS Modern church building. Site is location of first store on Main Street: Hager & Sargent General Store (demolished to build Peace Lutheran Church).500 - Private ResidenceX4 1.5clapboardno?circa 1850highS/B This residence is typical of the mid-19th century working class homes that lined both sides of Main Street at one time. This particular house type is prevalent throughout the Village; however, many examples have been remodeled beyond recognition. Although the synthetic siding conceals the original exterior, much of the original character is still recognizable. (See 618 Main Street.)501 - Private ResidenceX4 1.5stoneyescirca 1940highS X Small cottage house with heavily landscaped yard; house and yard are well-kempt. May be identified stylistically as "Minimal Traditional" (McAlester). Few distinguishing characteristics except cornice and front entry.502 - Private Residence X1 1.5clapboardyescirca 1850lownone Original structure has been remodeled beyond recognition.503 - Private ResidenceX4.5 2clapboardyesbegun 1834highS/B X 12/29/1980 This landmark structure is one of the oldest documented structures in the Village. Has served many uses including: first post office in Will County; militia headquarters; tavern; stagecoach stop; doctor's office; land grant office; and private home. As a stagecoach stop on the Frink & Walker Line, the house was at the mid-point between Chicago and Ottawa, hence the name "Halfway House" is often used. The vernacular building is an asymmetrical, Building Location Historic Contributing Non-contributing Integrity Stories Orig. Mat'ls.Additions Constr. Date Pres. Value UGS IHLS IHSS NRHP central hall plan with minimalistic references to the emerging Greek Revival style including a broad entablature and suggested pilasters at the cornerboard trim. Building was listed on the National Register in 1980.504 - Parking Lot (Apts.)Xn/a 0n/an/an/anonenone 505 - Vacant Lot 506 - Apartments Xn/a 2bricknocirca 1959nonenone See Illinois Street.507 - Vacant Lot 508 - no listing 509 - Private ResidenceX4 1.5stoneyescirca 1940highS Small cottage house with few distinguishing characteristics. May be identified stylistically as "Minimal Traditional" (McAlest er).510 - no listing 511 - Private ResidenceX4 1bricknocirca 1940highS Small cottage house with few distinguishing characteristics except front entry. May be identified stylistically as "Minimal Traditional" (McAlester).512 - no listing 513 - Private Residence X1 1.5clapboardyescirca 1860?lownone Numerous remodelings have not respected the original architectural character of this residence and have resulted in a complete loss of integrity.514 - no listing 515 - Private Residence X1 2clapboardyescirca 1870?lowS This building was significantly remodeled in the early 1970s; the remodeling was not respectful of the original architecture and resulted in a complete loss of architectural integrity. Building maintains rhythm of the stre et.600 - no listing 601 - Private Residence X 3 1.5clapboardyescirca 1850highS/B This small residence is one of the most ornate cottages in the Village. The original house was significantly remodeled in 1906; however a substantial addition was erected in 1997. Although "period-sensitive," the addition overpowers the original house. The addition was located on the site to avoid the floodplain and existing site components such as an original well and an early 20th century sunken garden.602 - no listing 603 - Private ResidenceX 3 1.5stuccoyes?circa 1900highS/B This small cottage typifies the infill homes of the period along Main Street.Note about Main Street:The remainder of Main Street (south towards Lockport Street) is a variety of residential building types including modern infill apartments; small non-descript residences (many of these have been remodeled significantly); and a few historic houses which--with one exception (see below)--have been remodeled to the extent that most of the architecturally-distinguishing characteristics have been destroyed.618 - VacantX 4 2clapboardyescirca 1850highS/B This former residence is being converted to a commercial office use while retaining the historic, circa 1920 exterior.Although photographs existed from an earlier period, the 1920 era includes the large, historic addition (1915) to the north. This residence is typical of the mid-19th century working class homes that lined both sides of Main Street at one time. This particular house type is prevalent throughout the Village; however, many examples have been remodeled beyond recognition. (See 500 Main Street.) Oak Street 406 - Private ResidenceX2 1.5clapboardyescirca 1900lowS Undistinguished residence; numerous additions, remodelings and synthetic siding conceal original character and jeopardize integrity.407 - no listing 408 - Private ResidenceX2 1.5clapboardyescirca 1925lowS Remodeled bungalow; synthetic siding conceals original character.409 - no listing 410 - Apartments Xn/a 2brick / wood shinglenocirca 1973n/anone Building Location Historic Contributing Non-contributing Integrity Stories Orig. Mat'ls.Additions Constr. Date Pres. Value UGS IHLS IHSS NRHP Modern, mansard-roofed apartment building; no relationship to historic character of downtown area.411 - Private ResidenceX4.5 1brickno?circa 1925highB Minimal Traditional (McAlester) or English Cottage style residence; rare type in the Village. Probably most interesting architecture fronting Oak Street.505 - Dental Office Xn/a 1bricknocirca 1968?lownone Non-conforming commercial building; no relationship to historic character of the downtown area.506 - no listing 507 - no listing 508 - no listing 509 - Private ResidenceX3.5 1clapboard?no?circa 1925?modnone Non-descript bungalow.510 - Private Residence X1.5 1clapboardyescirca 1925?lownone Non-descript bungalow; major addition to front façade significantly alters the original character of the residence.511 - Private ResidenceX 2 1.5clapboard?no?circa 1845?modS/B Reported to be one of the oldest houses in Arnold's Addition to the Village. However, the house was remodeled about 1940(?) to its present "Colonial Revival" appearance. Possibly Greek Revival cottage originally.Chicago Street 404 - Private ResidenceX3.5 1.5clapboardnocirca 1900highS/B Simple residence with columned porch; synthetic siding conceals original character.406 - Private ResidenceX3.5 1clapboard?nocirca 1925?modS Non-descript bungalow; may be similar to 509 Oak Street. Synthetic siding conceals original character.410 - Private Resid. / Apts.X 4 2clapbrd. / shingleyescirca 1890highS/B Shingle and Queen Anne stylistic influences. Enclosed porches, second floor addition at the re-entrant corner, and synthetic siding conceal much of the original character. However, many details survive including porch cheek walls, recessed attic windows, and decorative glass.500 - Parking Lot (Bank 1)n/a 0n/an/an/an/anone Surface parking lot with no landscape buffers.501 - no listing 502 - no listing 503 - no listing 504 - Private Residence Xn/a 1clapboardnocirca 1970lownone Modern ranch home.505 - Private ResidenceX3.5 2clapboard / conc. blk.nocirca 1915?highS/B Four Square with "rock-faced" concrete block porch. Replacement windows(?) and synthetic siding detract from original character. Methodist church parsonage.506 - Private ResidenceX2.5 2clapboardyescirca 1850highS Numerous additions, replacement windows, and synthetic siding conceal original character; remnants of a Greek Revival door surround are visible below 20th century stoop roof.507 - Vacant Lot 508 - no listing 509 - Vacant Lot Total Buildings in HUC = 225 (100%) Significance Classification 65 (28.89%) 78 (34.67%) 82 (36.44%) Combined Historic and Contributi ng Buildings in HUC = 143 (63.56%) Note: These building counts do not include the south end of Main Street which was excluded from the inventory as non-significant. Those buildings add approximately 13 more structures for a total of 238. Therefore, the adjusted counts could be depicted more accurately as: Total Buildings in HUC = 238 (100%) Significance Classification 65 (27.31%) 78 (32.77%) 95 (39.92%) Combined Historic and Contributi ng Buildings in HUC = 143 (60.08%) Explanation of Inventory Abbreviations Preservation Value: S The building is important for the overall development character of the street. Preservation Value: B The building is important for the architectural style it expresses. Preservation Value: S/B The building is important for both the over all development charac ter of the street and the architectural style it expresses. UGS: Urbana Group Survey The Urbana Group was an architectural preservation and plann ing consultant hired by the Village of Pl ainfield in 1994-95 to complete a preliminary or "reconnaissance" survey of the historic core area of the village. The survey resulted in an evaluation of the general int egrity of the area; identified specific architectural styles that are present in Plainfield; identified individual buildings and potential districts which may qualify fo r listing in the National Register of Historic Places; and suggested additional in tensive survey work to assist the Village with other planning and development initiatives t hat would be sensitive to the historic buildings in the Village. IHLS: Illinois Historic Landmarks Survey Reconnaissance architectural survey c onducted by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources - Division of Preser vation Services beginning in 1972. The survey was completed statewide and resu lted in a listing of sites that were identified, visually, as hist oric in each community. Surv ey is available from the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency - Springfield, Illinois. IHSS: Illinois Historic Structures Survey A more thorough statewide survey conducted by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency beginning in the mid 1970s that a ttempted to include a larger number of historic resources that were not docum ented in the earlier survey. Survey is available from the Illinois Historic Pres ervation Agency - Springfield, Illinois. NRHP: National Register of Historic Places An honorary listing of hist oric sites, monuments and buil dings which, according to the standards set forth by the National Pa rk Service, have achieved local, state or federal historic signific ance. Listing in the Regi ster may afford property owners certain tax benefits and access to rehabilitation and restoration grant funding. Survey is available from t he Illinois Historic Preservation Agency - Springfield, Illinois. HUC: Historic Urban Core An area of the Lockport Str eet Business Corridor within the Village of Plainfield bounded by Main Street, Division Street , Chicago Street and Fox River Street; defined in the Village of Plainf ield Design Manual - Page 9. TUC: Transitional Urban Core An area of the Lockport Str eet Business Corridor within the Village of Plainfield bounded by Main Street, Fox River Str eet, Chicago Street and Old Van Dyke Road; defined in the Village of Pl ainfield Design Manual - Page 45. EUC: Expanded Urban Core An area of the Lockport Str eet Business Corridor within the Village of Plainfield approximately 800 feet north and south of Lockport Street between Old Van Dyke Road and 650 feet west of U.S. Route 30; defined in the Village of Plainfield Design Manual - Page 79.