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Landscape Guide for Stormwater BMP DesignRev. 2 May 2012 MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices Chapter One: Planting Guide Contents 1. Acknowledgments and References ..........................................................2 2. Introduction .............................................................................................4 3. General Guidance ....................................................................................4 Native Species ..................................................................................4 Invasive Species ................................................................................5 Site Preparation ................................................................................6 Planting Design .................................................................................7 Plant Selection ..................................................................................7 Installation and Management ..........................................................8 4. Stormwater Best Management Practices ................................................8 Wet Ponds ........................................................................................9 Wetlands .........................................................................................9 Infiltration Basins and Dry Swales ..................................................10 Surface Sand Filters ........................................................................12 Bioretention and Organic Filters .....................................................13 5. Plant Selection Considerations ..............................................................15 Landscape Zones ............................................................................15 Planting, Water & Mulch Requirements .........................................17 Sample Planting Detail ....................................................................18 Sample Tree Planting Detail ...........................................................19 6. Resources ..............................................................................................20 7. Plant List ................................................................................................21 MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 2 Simon Barker Barker Horticultural Services LLC 29800 Pike 235 Clarksville, MO 63336 P: 573-242-3300 Barkerplants@sbcglobal.com Jon Wingo DJM Ecological Services 101 Pratt Pl. Florissant, MO 63031 P: 314-974-4282 jwingo@djmecological.com djmecologicalservices.com Tammy Bruckerhoff Grow Native! Missouri Department of Agriculture P.O. Box 630 Jefferson City, MO 65102 P: 573-522-4170 F: 573-751-2868 www.grownative.org Scott Woodbury Missouri Botanical Garden Shaw Nature Reserve P.O. Box 38 Gray Summit, MO 63039 P: 636-451-3512 F: 636-451-5583 Scott.Woodbury@mobot.org www.shawnature.org Tracy Boaz Missouri Department of Conservation 11715 Cragwold Road Kirkwood, MO 63122 P: 314-301-1500 F: 314-301-1501 Tracy.Boaz@mdc.mo.gov www.mdc.mo.gov Perry Eckhardt Missouri Department of Conservation 160 Saint Peters Centre Blvd St Peters, MO 63376 P: 636-922-2833 F: 636-922-2840 Perry.Eckhardt@mdc.mo.gov www.mdc.mo.gov Bill Ruppert National Nursery Products 1328 Forest Avenue Kirkwood, Missouri 63122-6911 P: 314-966-0253 F: 314-966-1830 billr@rupehort.com www.rupehort.com Barry Ritter Ritter Horticultural Services 103 Windcliffe Drive Ballwin, MO 63021-5037 P: 636-346-2384 F: 636-386-8332 ritterhort@att.net Ted Spaid SWT Design 7722 Big Bend Boulevard St. Louis, MO 63119 P: 314-644-5700 F: 314-644-6378 www.swtdesign.com Doug Bauer Pizzo & Associates, LTD. Ecological Restoration 10729 Pine Road Leland, IL 60531 P: 815-495-2300 dougb@pizzo.info www.pizzo.info Angie Weber Missouri Department of Conservation Powder Valley Conservation Nature Center 11715 Cragwold Road Kirkwood, MO 63122 P:314-301-1506 x 2264 F: 314-301-1501 Angie.Weber@mdc.mo.gov Jennifer Porcelli Missouri Department of Conservation August A. Busch Memorial Conservation Area Office 2360 Hwy. D. St. Charles, MO 63304 P: 636-300-1953 x4162 F: 636-926-9125 Jennifer.Porcelli@mdc.mo.gov 1. Acknowledgments and References This document was prepared with the cooperation and support of the following contributors: Metropolitan St. Louis Sewer District (MSD) Staff Michael Buechter John Grimm Jay Hoskins Leslie Sawyer 2350 Market Street St. Louis, MO 63103-2555 P: 314-768-6200 www.stlmsd.com Please contact MSD if an electronic version of this document is desired. MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 3 In the preparation of this document reference was made to the following publications and resources: Biesboer, D. and R. Jacobson, (1994). Screening and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Native Warm Season Grasses. Minnesota Department of Transportation Report No. MN/RC 94-11. Center for Watershed Protection and Maryland Department of the Environment Water Management Administra- tion (2000). 2000 Maryland Department of the Environment Stormwater Design Manual, Volumes I & II , Bal- timore, MD. www.mde.state.md.us/Programs/WaterPrograms/SedimentandStormwater/stormwater_design/index.asp Fairchild, Barbara, editor (2007). Tried and True Missouri Native Plants for Your Yard, Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO. Dahl, Thomas E. 1990. Wetlands losses in the United States 1780's to 1980's. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. Ogle, D.G., and Hoag, J.C. (USDA - Natural Resource Conservation Service) (2000). Stormwater Plant Materials: A Resource Guide. Detailed Information on Appropriate Plant Materials for Best Management Practices . Boise Public Works, ID. www.cityofboise.org/Departments/Public_Works/PDF/PlantGuideline.pdf Shaw, D, and Schmidt, R. (2003). Plants for Stormwater Design: Species Selection in the Upper Midwest, Minneso- ta Pollution Control Agency, Saint Paul, MN. Cover photo: Alberici Corporation Headquarters, courtesy of Alberici Corporation Figures 1 and 11 and back cover: Courtesy of Missouri Botanical Garden PlantFinder www.mobot.org/ gardeninghelp/plantinfo.shtml Figure 2: Courtesy of Mid-America Regional Council www.marc.org Figure 3: Sources: www.rwmwd.org and www.ci.austin.tx.us/ Figure 4 Source: Ellerbe Creek Watershed Association www.ellerbecreek.org Figure 5-7: Source: Maryland Stormwater Design Manual Figure 8 Source: Plants for Stormwater Design Figures 9 and 10: Courtesy of Ted Spaid, SWT Design www.swtdesign.com Figure 1: From left, Aesculus pavia, Equisetum hyemale, Chleone obliqua, Courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden Plantfinder MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 4 2. Introduction In recent years interest has increased in the use of innovative methods to retain and treat stormwater. These methods, often called stormwater best management practices (BMPs), rely on natural processes, such as microbi- al activity, filtration, infiltration, denitrification, nutrient reduction and evapotranspiration, to attain water quality and water quantity goals. Although technical information is available on the design of many types of stormwater BMPs, less information is available on plant species appropriate for these systems. This guide has been developed to assist designers through the process of selecting and planting native plant spe- cies appropriate for a variety of stormwater BMPs in St. Louis, Missouri. This guide is by no means a substitute for employing the proper professionals to ensure project success. It is broken down into seven major sections. Section 1 provides an acknowledgement to the contributors. In Section 3, key factors in selecting plant material for stormwater landscaping are reviewed, including native species, invasive species, site preparation, planting design, plant selection and installation and management. Section 4 presents more specific guidance on landscap- ing criteria and plant selection for the following BMP design types: Wet Ponds Wetlands Infiltration Basins and Dry Swales Surface Sand Filters Bioretention and Organic Filters Section 5 provides further plant selection considerations and Section 6 lists valuable local resources. The final section, Section 7 lists various plants specific for each BMP type outlined. 3. General Guidance Native Species The Landscaping Guide for Stormwater Design requires the use of native plants in stormwater management facili- ties. Native plants are defined as those species that evolved naturally to live in this region. Native species are those that lived in Missouri before Europeans explored and settled in America and brought many common, but non-native species, with them. Many introduced species were weeds brought in by accident; others were inten- tionally introduced and cultivated for use as medicinal herbs, spices, dyes, fiber plants and ornamentals. Because they evolved to live here naturally, native plants are best suited for our local conditions. This translates into greater survivorship when planted and less replacement or maintenance during the life of a stormwater management facility. The deep root systems (See Figure 2) help develop pore space in the soil to promote infil- tration of rainfall, reducing stormwater runoff during rain events. The deep root systems also sustain the plants during dry periods, reducing dependence on irrigation. These attributes provide cost savings for the facility own- er. Cost savings are even more substantial due to the reduced need for mowing, compared to turf. The benefits of native plants go beyond practical issues for the installer and property manager. Reduced mowing also contributes to improved air quality. Native plants also provide food and cover for birds and butterflies, fur- ther contributing to the aesthetics and biodiversity. The list in this guide contains plants that are readily available and have proven suitability to these stormwater practices. Additional native plant species will be added as experience proves their adaptability and performance. Other non-invasive adaptive species will be considered for approval on a case by case basis. MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 5 Finally, many native species provide high aesthetic value important for public acceptance and maintenance of property value. Species that are part of Missouri’s natural heritage and provide high aesthetic value throughout the year include culver’s root, river oats, cardinal flower, blue lobelia, golden alexander, lizards tail, mountain mint, New England aster, palm sedge, sneezeweed, wild bergamot, southern blue flag iris and copper iris. Invasive Species Introduced species can escape cultivation and begin reproducing in the wild, causing significant damage to native ecosystems. This is ecologically significant because some species out-compete indigenous species and begin to replace them in the wild. Early detection and eradication is the best way to control invasive plants. Invasive spe- cies common to the region include: The deep root systems of native plants help develop pore space in the soil to promote infiltration of rainfall and sustain them during dry periods. Figure 2: Native versus Non-Native Root Systems. Source: Mid America Regional Council of Governments MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 6 Bush honeysuckle (Lonicera x bella, Lonicera maackii). Shrub or bush honeysuckles were once touted for their red fruit and extended green season. They colonize in forest areas throughout the state, especially in metropolitan areas. Their aggressive behavior shades out native shrubs and wildflowers and their weak root system contributes to erosion problems. Wintercreeper euonymus (Euonymus fortunei). Brought from Asia as an ornamental groundcover, winter- creeper forms a dense ground cover and climbs on rocks and trees. It can eliminate spring wildflowers that would otherwise grow on the forest floor. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata). A European native, it came to the United States for use as a culinary herb. Today it carpets forest floors, stealing space used by woodland wildflowers. The invasive plants listed here are only a few of the aggressors. Information on exotic invasive species identifica- tion and management can be found at: Midwest Invasive Plant Network www.mipn.org Missouri Botanical Garden Shaw Nature Reserve http://www.shawnature.org/nativeland/NativeLandscapingManual/ChapterThree.aspx Missouri Department of Conservation www.mdc.mo.gov/nathis/exotic The Nature Conservancy http://www.nature.org/initiatives/invasivespecies/ Site Preparation Test soil to determine if there is a need for amendments. Proper soil nutrients promote planting success. Soil testing determines: pH; whether acid, neutral, or alkaline major soil nutrients; nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium minerals; such as chelated iron, lime Have soil samples analyzed by experienced and qualified individuals, such as those at University of Missouri Ex- tension (http://extension.missouri.edu/stlouis/services.shtml). A soil analysis explains the results, what they mean and what soil amendments are needed. If topsoil has been removed during construction, put it back in place . Whenever possible, topsoil should be spread to a depth of four inches (two inch minimum) over the entire area to be planted. This provides organic matter and important nutrients for the plant material. Without topsoil, plants may not survive and any that do will be slow to establish. The use of imported planting soil, required in certain practices, allows vegetation to establish faster and roots to penetrate deeper. This ensures quicker and more complete stabilization, making it less likely that plants will wash out during a heavy storm. See Section 4 for soil specifications for planting soil. Minimize soil compaction and ensure compacted soils are loosened . Soil compaction should be minimized, as it is very difficult to reverse. Compacted soils inhibit penetration of plant roots, reduce planting success and in- crease costs as vegetation will need to be replaced. In seeding applications, seeds will lie on the surface of com- pacted soils and be washed away or eaten by birds. For establishment success, soils should be loosened to a four -inch depth. Hard soils may require discing or subsoiling (deep plowing without turning the soil) to a deeper depth. Test soils on site for infiltration capacity. Site soils should have the capacity sufficient to meet the desired BMP performance. Infiltration capacity is critical in determining the effectiveness and ultimately the success of an infiltration practice. MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 7 Planting Design Make aesthetics and viewsheds a prime consideration . Careful attention to the design and planting of a storm- water BMP can result in greater public acceptance and increased property value. Maintain and frame desirable views. Be careful not to block views at entrances, exits, or difficult road curves. Screen unattractive views into or from the site. Keep overhead utilities in mind when selecting plants to ensure the mature size will fit beneath the wires. Consider all key design issues when selecting plant material: Shape Color Texture Seasonal Interest (e.g., flowers, fruit, leaves, stems/bark) Growth Rate Mature Size Ensure trees and shrubs permit maintenance and inspection access. Plant trees and shrubs at least 15 feet from the toe of slope of a dam or embankment. Limiting embankment plantings to herbaceous (non-woody) plants allows visibility for inspection for burrowing rodents that may compromise the integrity of the embankment. Plant trees and shrubs to allow access to the overflow riser. Stabilize key areas with erosion control mats. Use erosion control mats in channels that are subject to frequent wash outs. If permanent mats are used, ensure they remain embedded in soil to retain functionality, permit plant growth and protect wildlife. Stabilize emergency spillways with suitable material or plants that can with- stand strong flows. Root material should be fibrous and substantial, but lack a taproot, when used on dams and embankments. Stabilize aquatic and safety benches with emergent wetland plants or seed mixes. Design aquatic features to prevent warming and pollutant inflows. Shade inflow and outflow channels and the southern exposure of ponds to prevent thermal warming, which damages aquatic systems and is considered a pollutant. Buffer strips help prevent other pollutants from entering water bodies. When mulch is used, it should be standard landscape style, single or double shredded hardwood mulch . The mulch layer should be free of other materials, such as weed seeds, soil, roots, etc. The mulch should be applied to a maximum depth of three inches. Grass clippings should not be used as a mulch. Alternatively, pea gravel or other similar natural gravel may be used. A “natural” (i.e. river-run) source of sand and gravel should be used . Additionally, washed materials are needed to prevent fines from clogging the sand and gravel layers. The gradation of gravel selected should be large enough to prevent “wash-out” through the perforated pipe, but small enough to prevent the sand from migrating through the gravel. Plant Selection Preserve existing natural vegetation where possible. Existing vegetation intercepts and infiltrates stormwater and can provide aesthetic benefits at little or no cost. Vegetation to be retained must be protected from con- struction damage by installing a construction fence and enforcing preservation. Construction equipment and stockpiled materials shall be kept away from vegetation to be retained and, in the case of trees, beyond the dripline at a minimum. Select a diverse plant palette. Diversity in plant materials provides aesthetic benefits in terms of structure, color and seasonal interest. By creating a diverse, dense plant cover, stormwater BMPs will be able to intercept and treat stormwater runoff and withstand urban stresses from insects, disease, drought, temperature, wind and exposure. Various root types (shallow, deep, fibrous, etc.) provide the best stability. Diverse plant types, i.e. trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants, intercept rainfall at multiple levels before it reaches the ground. A diverse MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 8 plant community also ensures that a disease, insect, or other problem does not completely wipe out the vegeta- tion. Requirements in Section 7, the plant list, help achieve this goal. Minimize turf use. Turf grass does little to prevent erosion. It functions much like an impervious surface as the root system is shallow and it provides little above-ground structure to intercept rainfall and slow stormwater run- off. It also requires intensive chemical applications and mowing that increases cost and exacerbates stormwater quality problems. Select plants carefully for cultural tolerances. The plant lists in Section 7 are organized to make this process easy. Ensure plants are appropriate to their location in the stormwater BMP. Use salt tolerant plants and buffer stormwater BMPs where deicing salt is used heavily . Roadways and parking lots in the Midwest are salted heavily during winter months. During melting and rainfall events, salt is washed into a stormwater system. Biesboer and Jacobson (1994) found salt concentrations were highest within three feet of the road and then rapidly declined within 30 feet. Most warm-season grasses were tolerant of conditions beyond 10 feet from the road. Native warm-season grasses germinate later in the season, after spring rains re- duce the concentration of salts in the soil. Buffer strips should be used to reduce salt inflow into stormwater BMPs. The plant lists in Section 7 provide information on salt tolerance. Keep management requirements in mind. Carefully consider the long term vegetation management strategy for the BMP, keeping in mind the maintenance legacy for the future owners. Avoid pushing the tolerances for plants to ensure their survival. Select plants that have a suitable form and mature size to minimize the need for trim- ming or replacement. Provide a planting surface that can withstand the compaction of vehicles using mainte- nance access roads. Installation and Management Provide water until plants become established . Remember that newly installed plant material requires water to recover from the shock of being transplanted. Be sure that a source of water is provided, especially during dry periods. This will reduce plant loss and provide new plant material a chance to establish root growth. See Section 5 for planting, water and mulch requirements. Ensure soil to root contact. When a site is mulched prior to planting, ensure container grown plants are installed directly into the soil and mulch is less than two to three inches deep. Mulch should not be tilled into the soil pri- or to planting because the mulch decomposition process will compete with plant nutrient needs. Establish plant cover as quickly as possible. In all cases, seed mixes and plant material must be selected to es- tablish ground cover as quickly as possible. Temporarily divert concentrated flows from planted or seeded areas until stabilized. Plan for the long-term. Make sure the facility maintenance agreement includes requirements to ensure vegeta- tion cover in perpetuity. Provide signage. Use signage in Stormwater Management Areas to help educate the public. Signage helps guide the limits of mowing and encourages public support during the establishment period. 4. Stormwater Best Management Practices For the purpose of this guide, stormwater BMPs are grouped into five categories: wet ponds, wetlands, infiltra- tion basins and dry swales, surface filters and bioretention and organic filters. This section provides a brief de- scription of the types of stormwater BMPs and planting considerations for each. MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 9 Wet Ponds Wet ponds (including extended detention ponds, multiple pond systems and pocket ponds) are constructed stormwater retention basins designed to retain a permanent pool of water. Wet ponds are generally located on- line, meaning in the flow-path of the runoff. Stormwater from each runoff event is detained in the wet pond un- til displaced by a subsequent event. The permanent wet pond provides for sedimentation, which removes met- als, nutrients, sediment and organics from stormwater. Biological uptake of pollutants and nitrogen is provided by vegetation in and around the pond. Wet ponds are suitable for sites with high nutrient loads. Wet ponds should include safety and aquatic benches to add areas for plant growth that aid in biological uptake, evapotranspiration and provide wildlife habitat. Vegetation may also act as a barrier to keep children away from open water areas, or as a screen. Wet ponds often fill quickly and then slowly decrease in water level. As a re- sult, wet ponds may experience significant water fluctuations after storms and plants must be chosen that can handle these conditions. Species suitable for planting in wet ponds are included in Section 7, Plant Lists, of this document. Wetlands The use of wetlands for the treatment of stormwater runoff stems from earlier attempts to use wetlands for wastewater treatment and flood control. Given that natural wetlands provide flood control, surface water stor- age, groundwater recharge and natural filtration. it may be tempting to turn to natural wetlands to provide treat- ment for stormwater pollutants. However, directing stormwater to natural wetlands damages the hydrology and functioning of the wetland. Wetlands perform a critical role in our natural systems and an estimated 87% of Mis- Figure 3: Wet Ponds, Oakdale, WA (upper left), Source: www.rwmwd.org, Austin, TX Source: www.ci.austin.tx.us/ This wet pond lies between an elementary school and a high school in Oakdale, Washington. The perimeter of the pond was planted by volunteers with emer- gent, wet meadow and prairie species, shrubs and trees. The project was a cooperative effort between the Ramey-Washington Metro Watershed District and the school district. The areas is used as part of the environmental education program for elementary and high school students. Facing rapid growth, Austin, Texas recognized the importance of protecting their water supply and environmentally sensitive watersheds, leading to the creation of the development zones designed to direct development away from sensitive areas and drinking water sources. The wet pond in Austin’s Central Park is one of the stormwater practices implemented in a 39-acre mixed use development created under the new regulations. MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 10 souri wetlands were lost by the mid- 1980’s, 53% nationwide (Dahl, 1990). As a result, environmental and per- mitting requirements exist to preserve our remaining natural wetlands. Therefore, artificial or constructed wet- lands are required for use in stormwater treatment. Like their natural counterparts constructed wetlands offer natural aesthetic qualities, wildlife habitat, erosion control and pollutant removal. Wetlands may be used alone or in conjunction with other BMPs. It is very im- portant that a sufficient supply of water be provided to ensure proper functioning of the wetland. Like wet ponds the water surfaces in wetlands may vary considerably. As a result, plants must be chosen that can handle these conditions. Species suitable for planting in wetlands are included in Section 7, Plant Lists, of this document. Infiltration Basins and Dry Swales Infiltration basins take advantage of existing permeable soils to provide groundwater recharge. In an infiltration basin a given runoff volume is captured and allowed to infiltrate into the ground and be lost to evapotranspira- tion. Pollutants are removed as water flows through the soil and by bacterial action. In some instances where permeability is great, these facilities are used for quantity control as well. When properly planted, vegetation thrives and enhances the functioning of these systems. For example, pre- treatment buffers trap sediments which often are bound with phosphorous and metals. Vegetation planted in the facility takes up nutrients and their roots provide arteries for stormwater to permeate soil for groundwater recharge. Finally, successful plantings provide aesthetic value and wildlife habitat making these facilities desira- ble to the public. Dry swales are open, vegetated channels that are designed to filter and slow stormwater. Check dams are often used to detain water and settle pollutants. These swales are often used along roadways. If the existing soils are not sufficiently permeable, more permeable soils may be added. If a BMP is likely to receive high levels of deicing salt, salt tolerant plants should be used. Figure 4: Stormwater Wetland, Ellerbee Creek, North Carolina Source: www.ellerbeecreek.org MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 11 Where areas will be inundated or saturated with water, particular attention should be paid to plant selection. Deep-rooted plants may be particularly effective in these situations as they will encourage infiltration. Species suitable for planting in infiltration basins and dry swales are included in Section 7, Plant Lists, of this document. Figure 5: Dry Swale Source: Maryland Stormwater Design Manual MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 12 Surface Sand Filters Surface filters (including pocket sand filters) include a permeable medium such as sand for stormwater quality control. One of the main advantages of sand filters is their adaptability. They can be used on areas with low-soil infiltration rates, high evaporation rates and hot-spots. Sand filters for stormwater runoff treatment have been used extensively in some mid-Atlantic states and even longer in Austin, Texas. Figure 6: Surface Sand Filter Source: Maryland Stormwater Design Manual 0 N 0 0 puo's' BupJod Ja;-0!8 Given the small planting soil cover utilized in most vegetated surface sand filters, particular attention should be paid to the plants used. The planting soil layer may not include significant clay content that would hinder infiltra- tion. Species suitable for planting in surface sand filters are included in Section 7, Plant Lists, of this document. Bioretention and Organic Filters Bioretention areas and organic filters are attractive landscaping features planted with perennial native plants. They are designed to absorb stormwater run-off from impervious surfaces such as roofs and parking lots. These BMPs can be used in settings from residential landscapes to "big box" sites, or anywhere in between. They should not be confused with rain gardens promoted for homeowner installation, which are beneficial but do not involve rigorous engineering to meet stormwater standards. OLOZ '1d3S rn CURB STOP SLOPE PAVEMENT/ AGGREGATE BASE 3/4" 0 (OR LARGER) GRAVEL, TYP. 2" THICK MULCH 1 MSD TYPE 4 GEOTEXTILE FABRIC (SIDES ONLY) 2 VARIES 18" MAX. PONDING WQ STORM 36" MAX. PONDING GREATER STORMS NOTCHED CURB SLOPE 2 1 `�= i/' /"`.1/�� \///\ 4"0 SCHEDULE 40 PVC OR SCR 35 PERFORATED PIPE, 3/8"0 HOLES, TWO SIDES, FACING DOWN, 2" MIN. OFF BOTTOM TYPICAL SECTION SCALE: 1 "=20' NOTES: 30" (MIN.) THICK BIORETENTION SOIL MEDIA MSD TYPE 4 GEOTEXTILE FABRIC (SIDES ONLY) 6" THICK SAND (ASTM C-33 FINE AGGREGATE) 6" THICK 3/8" 0 GRAVEL (ASTM C-33 NO. 8) 6" THICK 3/4"0 GRAVEL (ASTM C-33 NO. 6 OR 67) EXISTING SOIL SUBGRADE, TILLED OR "RIPPED" 12" DEEP BEFORE BACKFILLING (1) SEE MSD LANDSCAPE GUIDE FOR BIORETENTION SOIL SPECIFICATIONS. (2) AS SHOWN, MAXIMUM DRAINAGE AREA = 0.5 ACRES. ADDITIONAL PRETREATMENT (FOREBAY OR VERTICAL SAND LAYER & COBBLE DIAPHRAGM) REQUIRED FOR LARGER DRAINAGE AREAS. (3) VEGETATION NOT SHOWN FOR CLARITY. SEE MSD LANDSCAPE GUIDE FOR MULCH & SUGGESTED PLANT LIST. (4) ALL SAND Sc GRAVEL TO BE NATURAL, UNCRUSHED. (5) SLOPES SHOWN ARE MAXIMUM. 12" WIDE BENCHES ARE ALLOWED IN LIEU OF 1:1 SUBGRADE SIDE SLOPE. (6) MUST BE PROVIDED WITH OVERFLOW INLET OR OVERLAND FLOW PATH. MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 13 MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 14 Bioretention areas are generally designed with underdrains. However, where proper infiltration testing indicates an infiltration rate greater than 0.52 inches per hour, consideration may be given to eliminating underdrains or limiting their use. Given this practice would encourage groundwater infiltration, it should be carefully considered and where possible encouraged. In areas where significant infiltration is possible, or it is desired to limit the use of underdrains, the underdrains may be perched as shown in Figure 7. The characteristics of the soil for the bioretention facility are perhaps as important as the facility location, size and treatment volume. The soil must be permeable enough to allow runoff to filter through the media, while having characteristics that promote and sustain a robust vegetative cover crop. In addition, much of the nutrient pollutant uptake (nitrogen and phosphorus) is accomplished through absorption and microbial activity within the soil profile. Therefore, the soils must balance soil chemistry and physical properties to support biotic communi- ties above and below ground. The planting soil should be a sandy loam or loamy sand (should contain a minimum of 60 percent sand, by vol- ume). The clay content for these soils should be less than 10 percent by volume. A saturated hydraulic conductivi- ty of at least 1.0 feet per day (0.5 inches per hour) is required. (Without post-construction verification, a con- servative default value of 0.5 feet per day is acceptable. The design rate may be increased to 2 feet/day if field observation, post-construction infiltration testing, or other equivalent testing (as determined by the District) is provided to confirm the design rate is achieved.) The soil should be free of stones, stumps, roots, or other woody material over 1 inch in diameter. For best results, brush or seeds from noxious weeds, such as Johnson grass, mugwort, nutsedge and Canadian thistle should not be present in the soils. Placement of the planting soil should be in lifts of 12 to 18 inches, loosely compacted (rubber wheeled heavy equipment and mechanical tamping de- vices are not recommended for compaction). The specific characteristics are presented in the following table. The mulch layer plays an important role in the performance of the bioretention system. It helps maintain soil moisture and avoids surface sealing that reduces permeability. Mulch helps prevent erosion and provides a mi- croenvironment suitable for soil biota at the mulch/soil interface. It also serves as a pretreatment layer, trapping the finer sediments that remain suspended after the primary pretreatment. The mulch layer should be standard landscape style, single or double shredded hardwood mulch. The mulch layer should be free of other materials, such as weed seeds, soil, roots, etc. The mulch should be applied to a maxi- mum depth of three inches. Grass clippings should not be used as a mulch. Alternatively, pea gravel or other similar natural gravel may be used. Parameter Value pH range 5.2 to 8.00 Organic matter 1.5 to 5.0% Magnesium 35 lbs. per acre, minimum Phosphorus (P2O5) 75 lbs. per acre, minimum Potassium (K2O) 85 lbs. per acre, minimum Soluble salts ≤ 500 ppm Table 1: Planting Soil Characteristics. Source: Maryland Stormwater Manual MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 15 A “natural” (i.e. river-run) source of sand and gravel should be used. Materials must be washed to prevent fines from clogging the sand and gravel layers. Bioretention areas and organic filters are full of water during storms and dry out during dry weather. The plants recommended in this guide generally tolerate both extremes. Species suitable for planting in bioretention areas and organic filters are included in Section 7, Plant Lists, of this document. 5. Plant Selection Considerations Landscape Zones Hydrology is a critical factor in plant success in stormwater practices. Plant species have evolved to tolerate par- ticular hydrologic conditions. Matching plants with the right tolerances to the conditions created on a site is key. Upper slopes Lower Slopes Pond Edge/ Submerged & Emergent Permanent Water Figure 8: Landscape Zones Source: Plants for Stormwater Design Table 2: Landscape Zone Descriptions Landscape Zone Conditions Submerged & Emergent 1-6 feet deep permanent pool Pond Edge & Permanent Water 6 inches to 1 foot deep Lower slopes Infrequently inundated Upper Slopes Seldom or never inundated Over Sand Periodically inundated but rapidly drained MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 16 BMPs create a variety of conditions, some of which mimic natural landscapes while others are highly artificial. This manual categorizes those conditions into six landscape zones or conditions. These zones describe the pres- ence of water, from inundated areas to dry upland slopes. Section 7 includes native plant lists organized by stormwater practice. The lists indicate the appropriate land- scape zone(s) for each species. The plants have been selected to tolerate potentially wide fluctuations in condi- tions which occur in a stormwater BMP. Submerged & Emergent - The submerged zone is found in areas of 3 to 6 feet of water in wet ponds. Sub- mergent species may float free in the water column or may root in the pool bottom and have stems and leaves that generally stay under water. Submergent species are important for wildlife habitat and pollutant removal, especially nitrates and phosphorus. The emergent zone of a wet pond is generally 0 to 18 inches deep. This nat- ural community is often created as benches within ponds to optimize the area for emergent plants. Emergent plants are important for wildlife and evapotranspiration. They also provide habitat for phytoplankton, which play an important role in nutrient removal (Ogle and Hoag 2000). A wide variety of wetland species are adapted to the emergent zone. Pond Edge & Permanent Water – The pond edge is a constantly moist area that can become inundated. The transition area between open water and the shoreline is prone to erosion. Therefore, it is an important area for plant establishment. Lower Slopes – This zone is normally dry but may flood during snowmelt and after large storms. These areas face the challenges of overlaying native soils which may have high clay content and potentially swinging between high moisture content during wet seasons and extended dry periods. Upper Slopes – The upper slopes are seldom or never inundated. A wide variety of species are well adapted to these dry conditions. Over Sand – Plants over sand filter face significant challenges. Soil depth is limited, creating challenges for suffi- cient nutrient availability. The distinct layers between the soil and sand causes short-term saturation in the soil layer followed by extremely droughty conditions. MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 17 Planting, Water and Mulch Requirements for Stormwater BMPs *This water amount includes natural rainfall. If you get a ½ inch of natural rain then you will need to add a ½ inch of water to meet the 1 inch requirement. **Requires transport of water to the planting site in large containers and pouring enough water onto each plant (after planting) to moisten the entire planting pit. ***Plants are established when roots have grown out of the container soil and into the native soil by 3-5 inches. This normally takes 3-4 months for most per-ennials and grasses and up to 6-7 months for trees and shrubs. ****Shredded leaf compost is recommended for use with perennials and grasses. Shredded bark mulch is recommended for tree and shrub plantings at a depth of 3 inches. Water Availability Required Planting Period Minimum Container Size Water Requirement First 3 Weeks* Water Requirement After 3 Weeks* Maximum Mulch Depth**** No ability to water after Late Feb. – April only 2.25” x 3.75” or larger Water each plug immediately 1.5 for plugs Manual watering with standard sprinkler Late Feb. – Early June Sept. – October 4.5” x 5” (quart) or larger in summer & fall 1” (60 min) every 4 days 1” (60 min) every 7 days until plants established*** 1.5” for plugs 2.5” for quarts Automatic irrigation (set to water more frequently than normal during first two months after planting) Late Feb. – Early Oct. 2.25” x 3.75” (plug) or larger in spring 4.5” x 5” (quart) or larger in summer & fall 1” (60 min) every 4 days in spring and fall 1” (60 min) every 3 days in summer 1” (60 min) every 7 days until plants established*** 1.5” for plugs 2.5” for quarts Table 3: Planting, Water and Mulch Requirements MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 18 Figure 9 MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 19 Figure 10 MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 20 6. Resources Native Plant Nurseries For an up-to-date list of native plant sources, go to www.grownative.org Web Site Resources Environmental Protection Agency www.epa.gov/nps/lid/ Grow Native! www.grownative.org Hinkson Creek Watershed www.helpthehinkson.org Shaw Nature Reserve www.shawnature.org Show Me Raingardens www.showmeraingardens.com Ten Thousand Rain Gardens www.rainkc.com Publications Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Missouri By Daniel L. Combs and Ronald D. Drobney. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; University of Missouri Columbia, MO 65211 LID for Big Box Retailers. Low Impact Development Center, 2005. PDF available at www.lowimpactdevelopment.org/bigbox/#bbpdfs Native Plant Rain Gardens brochure.2004. Grow Native! Missouri Department of Conservation Prairie Raingardens: Joining Habitat Restoration and Watershed Health By Scott Hamilton. Winter 2005. Missouri Prairie Journal Vol. 26, Number 1. Pg. 12-17. Rain Gardens By Janet Marinelli. Spring 2004. Brooklyn Botanic Garden Plants & Gardens News, Vol. 19, Number 1 Rain Gardens – A How-to Manual for Homeowners By Roger Bannerman and Ellen Considine. 2003. Univ. of Wisconsin-Extension and Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources . PDF available at http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/runoff/rg/ Raingardens: Managing Water Sustainability in the Garden and Designed Landscape By Nigel Dunnett and Andy Clayden Timberpress 2007. Water Plants for Missouri Ponds By James R. Whitley, Barbara Bassett, Joe G. Dillard and Rebecca A. Haefner. 1999. Missouri Department of Con- servation MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 21 7. Plant List The following pages present grasses, sedges, forbs, shrubs and trees native to Missouri and suitable for planting in stormwater BMPs. The lists are intended as a basic guide for general planting purposes and planning consider- ations. Knowledgeable landscape architects, designers and nursery suppliers may provide additional information for considering specific conditions for successful plant establishment and accounting for the variable nature of stormwater hydrology. The plants in these lists were selected to be readily available in the nursery trade. Often overlooked in plant se- lection is the availability and the cost of plant material. There are many plants listed in landscape books that are not readily available from local nurseries. Without knowledge of what is available, time spent researching and finding the one plant that meets all the needs is wasted. The planting lists are organized by stormwater BMP, then by plant type – grasses/sedges, forbs and trees/shrubs – and, finally, in alphabetical order according to the scientific name, with the common name provided. The lists are in Microsoft Excel to make sorting and creation of project plant lists easy. Each plant species has a corre- sponding landscape zone noted to indicate the most suitable planting location or locations for successful estab- lishment. Where the frequency, depth or duration of flooding that a plant will tolerate is known, that information is provid- ed. Pollution tolerance and salt tolerance information are indicated to identify plantings that would be most ap- propriate in pollution hot spots. Because individual plants often have unique requirements difficult to convey in a general listing, additional research is recommended to ensure successful plant establishment. Because of the limited area for which this plant list is to be used, hardiness zone information is not provided. All plants on the list are hardy in the St. Louis Region. Figure 11: From left: Cephalanthus occidentalis, Iris fulva, Coreopsis lanceolata Courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden Plantfinder Latin Name Common Name v e o° �o <9 ♦0 6e .. oaroaa ``eca y�`\0 o e c Grasses/Sedges C QVO •il%)N" Z•'7c/ 5e J F M A M J J A S 0 N D ,'S%Q>' 5%O`"'.7SrO%'re"F/ "Q%Q` F7c9 PrQ Carex annectans Yellow fruited sedge x x 2-3 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x x H 12 3 L Carex grayi Bur sedge x x 1-2 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x M 12 2 L M Carex crinita Fringed sedge x x 2-3 1.5 brown x x x x x x x x H 12 3 U L Carex muskingumensis Palm sedge x x x 2-3 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x x x x x H 24 3 M M Carex vulpinoidea Fox sedge x x 2-3 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x H 24 3 L L Juncus effusus Soft rush 0-1 x 2-3 1.5 green X x .X x_ x x x x x x H 24 4 LMM Scirpus atrovirens Great green bullrush x x x 2-3 1.5 green x x x x x x x x x M 12 3 L Scirpus cyperinus' Wool grass x 3-4 1.5 orange x x x x x. x x x x x x x x x H 24 3 M Forbs Asclepias incarnata Marsh milkweed x x x 2-4 2 pink x x x x x x x x x M 18 3 M M Chelone oblique Rose turtlehead x x 3-4 2 rose/purple x x x x x x M 12 1 M Equisetum hyemale Horsetail x x x 2-4 2.5 green x x x x x x x x x x x H 36 5 H H Helenium autumnale Sneezeweed x x 3-4 2 yellow x x x x x x x x x x x M 18 3 M M Hibiscus lasiocarpos Rose mallow x x x 3-7 2.5 white/pink x x x x x x x H 36 5 M M Iris fulva Copper iris x x x 2-3 1.5 copper L*_ :. x x x x x M 12 1 M Iris virginica Southern blueflag iris x x 2-3 2 blue x x x x x H 36 4 M M Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal flower x x x 2-3 1.5 red x x x x x x x x H 18 5 LMU Mimulus ringens' Allegehny monkey flower x x x 1-2 1.5 lavender x x x x x x x M 24 1 M Nymphaea odorata Fragrant water lily 1-5 1 10 white x x x x x H 36 H Pontedaria cordate Pickeral weed 0-1 x 1-2 2.5 blue x- x x x x x x x x M 12 4 LLU Sagittaria latifolia Arrowleaf 0-1 x 1-4 2.5 white x x x x x x M 18 3 MML Saururus cernuus Lizard tail 0-1 x 1-2 2.5 white x x x x x x x x x H 24 H Thalia dealbata Wild canna 0.2• x 4-7 5 purple x x X x x H 24 M H Trees/Shrubs Aesculus pavia Red buckeye x x 10-20 15 red x x x x x x H 18 2 L M Cephalanthus occidentalis Buttonbush x x x 5-10 7.5 white x x x x x x x x x H 36 7 M H Quercus macrocarpa Bur oak x x x 40-60 35 green' x x x x x x H 36 5 HLH Taxodium disticum Bald cypress x x x x 40-60 20 orange i •x : xs x x x x x x x H 36 7 L H Requirements Local Ecotype Rule: Plants of Missouri or Southern Illinois ecotype are required. It is recommended that a minimum of 5 grass/sedge species and 8 forb species be provided for each BMP. It is recommended that this list be provided to landscape contractors/buyers in case substitutions are required. Where a diverse landscape is desired, each species should consist of between 5% - 15% of the total plant count for each BMP. Refer to Planting, Water, and Mulch Requirements for Stormwater BMP's for plant sizes and irrigation requirements Biodegradable erosion blanket must be used on slopes greater than 10%. Erosion blankets must be coarse to allow varying leaf sizes (examples include Geojute. Curlex #1 and NorthAmerican Green S75 single net straw blanket, or equivalent) 'Experimental for practice and/or limited availability in commercial trade Section 7: Plant List MSD Landscape Guide Wet Ponds Latin Name Common Name Grasses/Sedges o Q% o- �/ .3‘ / 9/ 9 JFMAMJJASOND 9/ Q,7 Q % 9% O" v% s" 0% @" fC% s ' (i- 1/4`, F7 5' PJ `- Carex annectans Yellow fruited sedge x x 2-3 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x H 12 3 L Carex grayi Bur sedge x x 1-2 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x M 12 2 L M Carex crinita Fringed sedge x x 2-3 1.5 brown x x x x x x x x H 12 3 U L Carex muskingumensis Palm sedge x x x 2-3 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x x x x x x H 24 3 M M Carex vulpinoidea Fox sedge x x 2-3' 1.5' tan x x x x x x x x x H 24 3 L L Chasmanthium latifolium River oats x x x 2-5 1.5 green I'x> x x x x x x x x x x x x x M 12 1 H Juncus effusus Soft rush 0-1 x 2-3 1.5 green k x .x x x x x x x H 24 4 LMM Scirpus atrovirens Great green bullrush x x x 2-3 1.5 green x x x x x x x x x M 12 3 L Spartina pectinata Prairie cordgrass x x 4-5 2.5 green x x x x x x x x x x H 36 5 H H Forbs Amsonia illustris Shining bluestar x x x 2-3 2.5 It. blue x x x x x x x x x x H 36 5 L H Asclepias incarnata Marsh milkweed x x x 2-4 2 pink x x x x x x x x x M 18 3 M M Chelone obliqua Rose turtlehead x x 3-4 2 rose/purple x x x x x x M 12 1 M Equisetum hyemate Horsetail x x x 2-4 2.5 green x x x x x x x x x x x H 36 5 H H Eupatorium coelestinum Mist flower: wild ageratum x x x 1-2 1.5 lavender x x x x x x x x x H 12 3 M H Hetenium autumnale Sneezeweed x x 3-4 2 yellow x x x x x x x x x x x M 18 3 M M Hibiscus lasiocarpos Rose mallow x x x 3-7 2.5 white/pink x x x x x x x H 36 5 M M Iris fulva Copper iris x x x 2-3 1.5 copper x X x x x x x M 12 1 M Iris virginica Southern blueflag iris x x 2-3 2 blue x x x x x H 36 4 M M Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal flower x x x 2-3 1.5 red x x x x x x x x H 18 5 LMU Mimulus ringens Allegehny monkey flower x x x 1-2 1.5 lavender x x x. x x x x M 24 1 M Monarda fistulosa Wild bergamont x x x 3-4 2 pink x x x x x x x x x x L 12 1 MMM Penstemon digitalis Smooth beard -tongue x x 2-3 1.5 white x x x x x x x M 12 1 M M Phlox paniculata Meadow phlox x 3-4 1.5 purple/pink x x x x x x x x L 12 1 M Rudbeckia subtomentosa Sweet coneflower x x 3-4 2 yellow x x x x x x x x x x H 12 2 M Trees/Shrubs Asimina triloba Paw paw x x 15-25 15 purple x x x x x x x x H 36 5 LMH Crataegus viridis Green hawthorne x x x 15-20 15 white x x k. k. x x x x x x x x M 12 1 H L Ilex verticillata Winterberry holly x x x 5-10 10 red x x x x x x x x H 12 3 L M Nyssa sylvatica Black gum x x 40-50 25 red x x x x x x x x L H L Requirements Local Ecotype Rule: Plants of Missouri or Southern Illinois ecotype are required. It is recommended that a minimum of 5 grass/sedge species and 8 forb species be provided for each BMP. It is recommended that this list be provided to landscape contractors/buyers in case substitutions are required. Where a diverse landscape is desired. each species should consist of between 5% - 15% of the total plant count for each BMP. Refer to Planting, Water, and Mulch Requirements for Stormwater BMP's for plant sizes and irrigation requirements Biodegradable erosion blanket must be used on slopes greater than 10%. Erosion blankets must be coarse to allow varying leaf sizes (examples include Geojute. Curlex #1 and NorthAmerican Green S75 single net straw blanket, or equivalent) 'Experimental for practice and/or limited availability in commercial trade Section 7: Plant List MSD Landscape Guide Wetlands Latin Name Common Name r'° ec ° ce F c aweb <if c°'eRra , 5'°cy>(/) c• rF cs6 ece �e ' .4r ,L 0 04�' o e key e A D c� / sac ee °tee ‘°%e can. Seca � / o .°tee � ° Oy5 5 c o e/e co�e�°c ci�'e e��rb�a��ec/ Gla ° �o as �e ' • b. oa °� ° �%� 44 Qa k"vo <v° Qvo 6x, I Andropogon virginicus 8roomsedge x x 1-2 1.5 orange X.:x x x x x x x x x L 1 M L Bouteloua curtipendula Sideoats grama x x 1-2 1 tan x x x x x x x x x x L 1 L L Carex muskingumensis Palm sedge x x x 1-2 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x x x x H 24 3+ M H Carex praegracilis* Tollway sedge x x x 1-2 2 tan x x x x x x x x x H 12 2 HHH Carex vulpinoidea Fox sedge x x 2-3 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x H 24 3+ L L H Panicum virgatum Switchgrass x x x 3-6 2.5 pink x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x M 12 2 MMM Schizachyrium scoparium Little bluestem x x 2-4 1.5 bronze x• x x_ x x x x x x x x L 12 1 M L L Sporobolus heterolepis Prairie dropseed x x 2-3 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x x L L Forbs Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly milkweed x x 1-2 1.5 orange X x -X x x x x L V M Baptisia australis Blue wild indigo x 3-4 3-4 blue x x x x x x L M Blephilia ciliata Ohio horsemint x 1-2 1.5 pink x x x x x x x x x L Coreopsis lanceolata Lanceleaf coreopsis x x 1-2 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x L 1 L Echinacea purpurea Purple coneflower x 2-3 1.5 It. purple x x x_ x x x x x x x L L Eryngium yuccifolium Rattlesnake master x x 4-5 1.5 green x x x x x x x x x M 12 2 M L Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Slender mountain mint x x x 2-3 1.5 white x x x x x x x x L 1 M Ratibida pinnata Yellow/Grey coneflower x x x 3-5 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x x M 12 1 MHL Rudbeckia subtomentosa Sweet coneflower x x 3-4 2 yellow x x x x x x x x x x H 12 2 M Scutellaria incana Hoary skullcap x 2-3 2 blue x x_ x x x x x x L L Solidago rigida Stiff goldenrod x x 3-5 1.5 yellow x x x x x L 12 2 MHL Verbesina helianthoides Yellow wingstem x x x 2-3 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x x M Zizia aurea Golden alexander x 1-3 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x H 12 1 MHU Trees/Shrubs Comus florida Flowering dogwood x x x 10-20 15 white x x x x x x x x x x L L L L Diospyos virginiana Persimmon x x x 30-40 20 orange x x x x: X. x x x x x x x x M 12 1 M M Ostrya virginiana Hophornbeam x x 20-30 20 green x x x x x x x L L L Quercus muhlenbergii Chinquapin oak x x 40-50 35 green x x x x x x L H L L Requirements Local Ecotype Rule: Plants of Missouri or Southern Illinois ecotype are required. It is recommended that a minimum of 5 grass/sedge species and 8 forb species be provided for each BMP. It is recommended that this list be provided to landscape contractors/buyers in case substitutions are required. Where a diverse landscape is desired, each species should consist of between 5% - 15% of the total plant count for each BMP. Refer to Planting, Water, and Mulch Requirements for Stormwater BMP's for plant sizes and irrigation requirements Biodegradable erosion blanket must be used on slopes greater than 10%. Erosion blankets must be coarse to allow varying leaf sizes (examples include Geojute, Curlex #1 and NorthAmerican Green S75 single net straw blanket, or equivalent) 'Experimental for practice and/or limited availability in commercial trade Section 7. Plant List MSD Landscape Guide Infiltration Basins Dry Swales Latin Name Common Name o y S ,oay �o rac `ec.� o`oc O • e e� `ec oticA oc 6Qa 5 J F M A J s ay e M A O D Andropogon gerardii Big bluestem x x 4-6 2-5 plum x x x x x x x x x x x M 12 2 M Andropogon ternarius Splitbeard bluestem x x 1-2 1.5 silver x x _ x x x x x x x x x L L L Andropogon virginica Broomsedge x x 1-2 1.5 orange x _x _x x x_ x x x x x x x L M L Carex hirsutella' Fuzzy wuzzy sedge x x 1 1 green/tan x x x x x x x x x x x L L Juncus biflorus' Bog rush x x 2 1 green/orange x x x x x x x x x x x x x M 6 2 L Panicum virgatum Switchgrass x x x 3-6 2.5 pink x x x x x_ x x x x x x x x x x M 12 2 MMM Schizachyrium scoparium Little bluestem x x 2-4 1.5 bronze x x x x x x x x x x x x x L M L L Forbs Amsonia illustris Shining bluestar x x x 2-3 2.5 It. blue x x x x x x x x x x H 36 5 L H Chrysopsis camporum* (C. vil Golden aster x x 2-3 1-5 yellow x x x x x x x x M 12 1 M Coreopsis lanceolata Lanceleaf coreopsis x x 1-2 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x L 1 L Coreopsis triptris Tall coreopsis x 2-8 2 yellow x x x x x x x M Lespedeza virginica Slender bush clover x x x 1-2 1-5 pink x x x x x x x L L Monarda fistulosa Wild bergamont x x x 3-4 2 pink x x x x x x x x x x L 12 1 MMM Parthenium integrifolium Wild quinine x x x 2-3 1.5 white x x x x x x x x L M L Penstemon digitalis Smooth beard -tongue x x 2-3 1.5 white x x x x x x x M 12 1 M M Solidago nemoralis Old field goldenrod x x 4-6 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x L L L Tephrosia virginiana Goatsbeard x x 1-2 1.5 pink & white x_ x x x x x x x x x L L Verbesina helianthoides Yellow wingstem x x 2-3 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x x x M 6 1 M L Trees/Shrubs Amelanchier arborea Serviceberry x x x 10-15 10 white x x x x x x x x x x L L Quercus coccinea Scarlet oak x x x 30-40 30 red x x x x x x L 6 1 H L Nyssa sylvatica Black gum x x 40-50 25 red x x x x x x x x L H L Pinus echinata Short -leaf pine x x x 40-50 20 green X x x X x x x x x x x x L L L Requirements Local Ecotype Rule: Plants of Missouri or Southern Illinois ecotype are required. It is recommended that a minimum of 5 grass/sedge species and 8 forb species be provided for each BMP. It is recommended that this list be provided to landscape contractors/buyers in case substitutions are required. Where a diverse landscape is desired, each species should consist of between 5% - 15% of the total plant count for each BMP. Refer to Planting, Water. and Mulch Requirements for Stormwater BMP's for plant sizes and irrigation requirements Biodegradable erosion blanket must be used on slopes greater than 10%. Erosion blankets must be coarse to allow varying leaf sizes (examples include Geojute, Curlex #1 and NorthAmerican Green S75 single net straw blanket, or equivalent) *Experimental for practice and/or limited availability in commercial trade Section 7. Plant List MSD Landscape Guide Surface Sand Filters Latin Name Common Name 0 ey `oc e€mac, • Grasses/Sedges ee Q"707/•,%J4` Zee/c V 5e J F M A M J J A S 0 N D ,'OJQ'Q7/S,7Or.7S?'0V0�'Q�S�' F�F�i � 5a''P Andropogon gerardii Big bluestem x x x 4-6 2 plum x x x x x x x x x x x x M 12 2 M Bouteloua curtipendula Sideoats grama x x 1-2 1 tan x x x x x x x x x x x L L Carex praegracilis' Tollway sedge x x x 1-2 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x H 12 2 HHH Carex grayi Bur sedge x x 1-2 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x x H 24 3 L Carex shortiana Short's sedge x x x 2 1.5 bluish x x x x x x x x x x x M 24 3 L Carex vulpinoidea Fox sedge x x 2-3 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x H 24 3 L L Chasmanthium latifolium River oats x x x 2-4 1.5 green x x x x x x x x x x x x x x M 12 1 H Schizachyrium scoparium Little bluestem x x 2-3 1.5 bronze x x x x x x x x x x x x x L M L L Sporobolus heterolepis Prairie dropseed x x 2-3 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x x L L Forbs Amsonia illustris Shining bluestar x x x 2-3 2.5 It. blue x x x x x x x x x x H 36 5 L H Aster novae-angliae New England aster x x 3-4 2 violet x X x x x x x x M 24 3 L H Chelone obtiqua Rose turtlehead x x 3-4 2 >se/purple ' x x x x x x M 12 1 M Coreopsis lanceolata Lanceleaf coreopsis x x 1-2 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x L 1 L Echinacea pallida Pale purple coneflower x 2-3 1.5 violet x .x x x x x x L L Echinacea purpurea Purple coneflower x 2-3 1.5 It. purple x X x x x x x x x x L L Eryngium yuccifolium Rattlesnake master x x 4-5 1.5 green x x x x x x x x x M 12 2 M L Eupatorium coelestinum Mist flower; wild ageratum x x x 1-2 1.5 lavender x' x X X x x x x x H 12 3 M H Hibiscus lasiocarpos Rose mallow x x x 3-7 2.5 vhite/pink x x x x x x x H 36 5 M M Iris virginica Southern blueflag iris x x 2-3 2 blue x x x x x H 36 4 M M Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Slender mountain mint x x x 2-3 1.5 white x x x x x x x x L 1 M Ratibida pinnata Yellow/Grey coneflower x x x 3-5 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x x M 12 1 MHL Rudbeckia fulgida Orange coneflower x 2 2 yellow x x x x x x x x x x L M Rudbeckia hirta Black-eyed Susan 2-3 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x L M Solidago rugosa Rough -leaved goldenrod x x 2-3 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x x x L M H L Solidago speciosa Showy goldenrod x x 2-3 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x x L M H L Verbesina helianthoides Yellow wingstem 2-3 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x L M Zizia aurea Golden alexander x 1-3 1 5 yellow x x x x x x x x L M H Trees/Shrubs Carpinus caroliniana Musclewood x x 15-20 20 yellow x x x x x x x x x x x x x M 6 1 L Cercis canadensis Redbud x x x 10-20 15 pink x _x x x x x x L L M L Hamamelus virginiana Eastern witchazel x x x 10-15 15 yellow x x x x x x x x x x L L L Quercus alba White oak x x 40-60 30 green x x x x x x x x x x x x L H L Requirements Local Ecotype Rule: Plants of Missouri or Southern Illinois ecotype are required. It is recommended that a minimum of 5 grass/sedge species and 8 forb species be provided for each BMP. It is recommended that this list be provided to landscape contractors/buyers in case substitutions are required. Where a diverse landscape is desired, each species should consist of between 5% - 15% of the total plant count for each BMP. Refer to Planting. Water. and Mulch Requirements for Stormwater BMP's for plant sizes and irrigation requirements Biodegradable erosion blanket must be used on slopes greater than 10%. Erosion blankets must be coarse to allow varying leaf sizes (examples include Geojute, Curiex #1 and NorthAmerican Green S75 single net straw blanket, or equivalent) 'Experimental for practice and/or limited availability in commercial trade Section 7: Plant List MSD Landscape Guide Bioretention and Organic Fitters: Informal Latin Name Common Name :A Grasses/Sedges 0"''Q%O°':9/JQ fi/c 7 90 J F M A M J J A S 0 N D 5%Q%Q` 9%O"is%Sr tr.e Q%Sv-Q\7F\'Q7c? P-74.: Carex annectans Yellow fruited sedge x x 2-3 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x x x H 12 3 L Carex albicans Oak sedge x x 10" 1 vergree-X. x x x_ x x_ x x x x x x x M 12 1 L Carex eburnea Bristle -leaf sedge x evergree x x x x x x x x x x x L L Carex grayii Bur sedge x x 1-2 1.5 vergree-X. x x x x x x x x x x x x M 12 2 L M! Carex muskingumensis Palm sedge x x x 2-3 1.5It. yellov x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x H 24 3 M M Juncus effusus Soft rush 0-1 x 2-3 1.5 wergreen x x x x x x x x x H 24 4 L M M 1 Schizachyrium scoparium Little bluestem x x 2-3 1.5 bronze x x x x x x x x x x x x L 12 1 M L L 1 Sporobolus heterolepis Prairie dropseed x x 2-3 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x x L L Forbs Amsonta illustns" Shining bluestar x x x 2-3 2.5 It. blue x x x x x x x x x x H 36 5 L H Aster oblongifolius Aromatic aster x 2 1.5 lay. Blue x x x x x x x x L M L Asclepias tuberose Butterfly milkweed x x 1-2 1.5 orange x x _3FI x x x x L V M Baptisia sphaerocarpa Yellow wild indigo x 2 2 yellow x x x x x x x L L Chelone obliqua Rose turtlehead x x 3-4 2 ise/purple x x x x x x M 12 1 M Coreopsis palmata Finger coreopsis x x 2 1 yellow x x x x x x x L L Echinacea purpurea Purple coneflower x 2-3 1.5It. purple .x x x x x x x x x x L L Heuchera americana American alumroot x 1 1.5 cream x x x x x x x x L L Heuchera parviflora Late -flowering alumroot x 1 1.5 white x x x x x x x x L L Heuchera richardsonii Prairie alumroot x x 1 1.5 cream x x x x x x x x x x M 12 1 L Heuchera villosa Maple -leaf alumroot x 1 1.5 white x x x x x x x x L L Hibiscus tasiocarpos" Rose mallow x x x 3-7 2.5 vhite/pink � x x x x x x x H 36 5 M M Iris cristata Dwarf crested it s x 1 1 Violet x x x x x x x L L Iris fulva Copper iris x x x 2-3 1.5 copper x .X' x x x x x M 12 1 M Liatris spicata Dense blazingstar x x x 2-3 1.5 5lavender x X x x x x x x x M 12 1 L Lobelia cardinalis' Cardinal flower x x x 2-3 1.5 red x x x x x x x x H 18 5 LMU Lobelia siphilitica Blue lobelia x x x 1-2 1.5 blue x x x x x x H 24 3 L H Parthenium hispidim American feverfew x 1-2 1.5 white x x x x x x x x L M Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Slender mountain mint x x x 2 1.5 white x x x x x x x x L L Rudbeckia fulgida Orange coneflower x x x 2 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x x H 24 3 M Sedum tematum Woodland stonecrop x 6" 1 iite/evr.` X x x X x x x x x x x L L Solidago flexicaulis Zig-zag goldenrod x x 2 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x x L L Spigelia marylandica Indian pink x x 1-2 1.5 red/yel x x x x x L L Trees/Shrubs Aesculus pavia Red buckeye x x 10-20 15 red x x x x x x H 24 2 L M Aronia melanocarpa" Black chokeberry x x 5-7 5 white x x 1 X. ,X x x x x x x x x x M 12 2 L Betula nigra' River birch x x x 30-40 15-2f cream x x x x x x x x x x H 36 5 H H Calicarpa americana Beautyberry x 3-5 4-6.pink/pur x x x x x x x x L L Carpinus caroliniana Musclewood x x 15-20 20 yellow x x x x x x x x x x x x x M 6 1 L Cercis canadensis Redbud x x x 10-20 15 pink x x x x x x x L L M L I Chionanthus virginicus Fringetree x 10-15 10 white x x x x x x x x x x L L Cornus alternifolia Pagoda dogwood x 10-15 10 white x x x x x x x x x x x L L Crataegis wndis x x x 15-20 15 white x x x x x x x x x x x x M 12 1 L M Diospyos virginiana Persimmon x x x 30-40 20 orange x x x x x x x x x x x x x M 12 1 M M Trees/Shrubs continued next page Section 7. Plant List MSD Landscape Guide Bioretention and Organic Fitters: Formal Latin Name Trees/Shrubs (cont.) Common Name co ' Q%O°' �,O'JQ Je/ w 9e J F M A M J J A S 0 N D 5%Q%Q` 070V.734 0VV Q%4k Q'F" 'Q7Sa ,?-7 Dirca palustrus Leatherwood x 5-7 5 It. yet x x x x x x x x x L L Hamamelus virginiana Eastern witchazel x x x 10-15 15 _ yellow x x x x x x x x x x L L L Hydrangea arborescens Wild Hydrangea x x 5-7 5 white x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x L L L L I Ilex verticillata Winterberry holly x x x 5-10 10 red x x x x x x x x x x H 12 3 L M! Neviusia alabamense•• "•• Alabama snowreath x x 8.10 7 white x x x x x x x M M Nyssa sylvatica Black gum x x 40-50 25 white x x x x x x x x x x L H L Quercus bicolor Swamp white oak x x x 40-50 25 white x x x x x x x x x x x H 24 3 H Quercus muehlenbergii Chinquapin oak x x 40-50 35 white x x x x x x x x x L H L L Quercus phellos Willow oak x x x 40-50 25 white x x x x x x x x x x M 24 3 L Quercus shumardi Shumard oak 40-50 25 white x x x x x x x x x L L Ribes odoratum Golden current x 5-7 5 yellow x x x x x x x x x L L Taxodium disticum Bald cypress x x x x 40-60 20 orange ..X . X. x x x x x x x H 36 7 L H Tilia americana American linden x x x 50-60 30 cream x x x x x x x x x x x H 36 7 M H I Requirements Local Ecotype Rule: Plants of Missouri or Southern Illinois ecotype are required It is recommended that a minimum of 5 grass/sedge species and 8 forb species be provided for each BMP. Deviation to this is acceptable for aesthetic variation if desired for more formal planting areas. Refer to Planting. Water, and Mulch Requirements for Stormwater BMP's for plant sizes and irrigation requirements Biodegradable erosion blanket must be used on slopes greater than 10%. Erosion blankets must be coarse to allow varying leaf sizes (examples include Geojute. Curlex #1 and NorthAmerican Green S75 single net straw blanket. or equivalent) This plant list was created for more formal aesthetics; plants have been selected for 3-4 season interest (foliage, flowers, fruits), long-lived and compact habit See notations below for exceptions Exceptions: • not long-lived •' habit not compact — not readily available from nurseries Section 7. Plant List MSD Landscape Guide Bioretention and Organic Fitters: Formal Chapter Two: Seeding Guide Contents 1. Seeding Flood Detention Basins and Buffer Areas ................................. 2 Site Preparation .............................................................................. 2 Seeding ............................................................................................ 4 Erosion Control Mats ...................................................................... 5 Vegetation Establishment ............................................................... 6 Educational Signage ........................................................................ 7 2. Resources ................................................................................................ 8 3. Seed Mix List ........................................................................................... 9 Page | 2 1. Seeding Flood Detention Basins and Buffer Areas Native plants evolved to live here naturally making them best suited for our local conditions. This translates into greater survivorship when planted and less replacement or maintenance during the life of a stormwater management facility. Both of these attributes provide cost savings for the facility owner. Life cycle cost savings are even more substantial due to the reduced need for mowing, compared to turf detention basins and buffer areas. A simple mowed border can be maintained to create a “managed” look. The benefits of natives go beyond practical issues for the installer and property manager. Reduced mowing also contributes to improved air quality. The deep root systems of native plants help develop pore space in the soil to promote infiltration of rainfall, which reduces stormwater runoff. The root systems also sustain the plants during dry periods reducing their dependence on irrigation. Natives also provide food and cover for native wildlife such as birds and butterflies, further contributing to aesthetics and biodiversity. Site Preparation For new construction or bare soil: Once a rough-finished grade is completed, sample the soil according to MU University Extension specifications. Obtain a soil analysis for warm season grasses (equivalent of University Extension Code 7) from University Extension or other certified laboratory. Amend based on the test result recommendations and till into the top six inches of soil. Loosen any areas compacted greater than 300 psi with an agricultural compaction tester to a depth of 8” then firm with a cultipacker. Construction sediment control areas should not be converted to native plant areas until upstream areas are stabilized, sediment is removed, and final grading is completed. For areas with existing turf lawn: Removing existing vegetation is critical. This process is more important than any other step, so ensure it is done thoroughly before seeding. Use an herbicide like Roundup (generically called glyphosate) to kill existing turf. Use Rodeo1 in areas within ten feet of water. Apply once in late summer and apply again in late fall (after the next flush of growth, generally a minimum of one month) for early winter seed sowing. Herbicides must be applied by a certified commercial applicator. For non-turf vegetated areas: Old fields typically have tall fescue, a diversity of grasses, broadleaf weeds and brush. Tall fescue requires special treatment due to its presence in the seed bank that persists for one year. To prevent fescue seed from sprouting in the first year of a seeding, prevent the fescue from flowering and going to seed in the previous season. This is done by repetitive mowing in spring and summer. It may take more than one season to control difficult weed species. The preferred method is to use glyphosate (or Rodeo within ten feet of water) to kill grasses and broadleaf weeds. Use Roundup Pro or Garlon to kill undesired tree saplings, shrubs and vines (if woody plants are too large, they must be cut down and removed from the site). Apply in mid-summer, late-summer and fall for early winter seed sowing. The table below lists difficult weeds and suggestions for their control. Control Methods for Difficult Plants Thistle Cirsium arvense, C. vulgare Spray 2% solution of Roundup in spring or early summer before plants flower. Crown Vetch Coronilla varia Spray 2% solution of Roundup over several-year period. Seeds are long-lived in the soil. Prescribed burning can stimulate spread. 1 Brand names are used generically; equivalent substitutes are acceptable. Always use an herbicide in accord with the instructions on the label. Page | 3 Yellow Nut Grass Cyperus esculentus Spray Sedge Hammer (1 gram per gallon of water) during the growing season. Sericea Lespedeza L. cuneata Spray 2% solution of Garlon or equivalent over several-year period. Seeds are long-lived in the soil. Prescribed burning can stimulate spread. Sweet Clover Melilotus spp. Mow over several-year period or spray with a 2% solution of 2,4-D amine and surfactant. Do not let sweet clover make seeds as it is difficult to control. Curly Dock Rumex crispus Spray 2% solution of Roundup in spring or early summer before plants flower. Tall Goldenrod Solidago altissima Spray 2% solution of Roundup in spring or early summer before plants flower. Johnson Grass Sorghum halepense Spray Outrider before plants flower. Red Clover Trifolium pretense Spray 2% solution of Roundup in spring or early summer before plants flower. Herbaceous Vines For vines such as Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus), Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), common periwinkle (Vinca minor), and bigleaf periwinkle (Vinca major), spray 2% solution of Roundup to foliage prior to flowering or seed set. Wintercreeper (Euonymus fortunei) foliage can be controlled in this way with multiple applications, but woody stems can be treated as described below. Tree Saplings, shrubs and woody vines Apply 20% solution of Garlon4 mixed in commercially available basal oil to bark of uncut stems. Apply 20% solution of Roundup Pro mixed in water with a surfactant (e.g. methylated seed oil or ammonium sulfate) to cut stumps. These applications can take place in any season but are easiest applied in winter. After existing vegetation is killed, the ground should not be tilled, disked, or plowed. Disturbing soil brings up weed seed resulting in additional weeds. Dead vegetation should be cut to a few inches high, using a mower or weed whip. Having some dead vegetation on the ground helps to hold seed in place and prevent erosion during winter months. Seeding can be done directly into the mowed dead vegetation in early winter. Please see the “Seeding” section on page four for more information. Vegetation and dam safety: The design engineer shall evaluate and select appropriate vegetation for ground cover on dam embankments.2 Trees and other woody vegetation should not be used on dams, because decaying roots can cause seepage problems. Uprooted trees can also create voids and erosion problems. Dense, tall vegetation on emergency spillways can limit hydraulic capacity. In addition, deep rooted vegetation may not be appropriate on the embankment side of the wet pond or wetland. Some factors to consider when selecting vegetation type for detention basins include: Duration of ponding (permanent or intermittent during storms) Ponding depth, duration and fluctuation during storms Overflow structure elevations Drainage area tributary to the basin Dams should be inspected periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the dam, crest, slope, outlet channel, spillway, and toe of slope. Dense vegetation can obscure animal burrows and other defects. Inspections should be completed in late winter, after annual mowing and before vegetation starts to leaf out for best visibility of the dam. 2 This does not replace state dam safety requirements. Page | 4 After heavy rains, dams should be inspected for erosion problems. These should be repaired as soon as possible, filled with good soil, compacted, reseeded and mulched as appropriate. Wave action can also cause damage on the pond side of the dam. Plantings, or if necessary, rock rip rap can be placed to help reduce wave induced erosion. Selecting plants around fluctuation zones: Plant pond edge and emergent aquatic species in the areas of the detention basin that are frequently inundated by storms. These species must be planted in permanent shallow water (up to 12 inches in depth). Failure to do so can result in frequent exposure to conditions that stress and potentially kill vegetation. It is recommended that the mature height of the plants used in these areas exceed the ponding depth of the one year 24 hour storm (see Plant List: Pond Edge and Emergent in Chapter One) For new detention basins within the MSD service area, this is the portion of the pond up to the storage of the Channel Protection Volume. Seeding Seed Mixes: Seed mixes for both wet and dry areas are provided in the section of this chapter titled “Seed Mix List.” Each mix contains a component of grass and sedge species as well as forb species. The grasses, sedges and forbs shall be sown together as one mix. Listed native annuals can be added to provide color in the first few growing seasons. The annual seed weights are to be used in addition to perennial grass, sedge and forb quantities. Please note that at times blooming annuals may need to be mowed down to control weeds in the first two growing seasons. Seed quantities must be calculated based on the percentage of Pure Live Seed (PLS) per acre. PLS is the viable seed of the specified variety and calculated as the product of the germination rate times the purity. All seed is to be planted within nine months of the testing date. Seed mixture should be provided in containers showing percentage of each seed species in the mix, year of production, net weight, date of packaging and seed provenance. Containers must be shipped with certificates of inspection as required by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The weights of seed needed for the wet and dry mixtures have already been calculated. These weights have been doubled due to typical construction site subsoil conditions, which usually provide less than optimal growing medium for germination. A nurse crop such as oats is required to prevent erosion and reduce weed growth during the first growing season. Nurse crops typically disappear by the second growing season. Either seed oats (Avena sativa) or winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) can be used at a rate of 60 lbs. per acre. If winter wheat is used, cut before seed heads mature to avoid reseeding. Beginning in March and through September, during this time if the soil bed is ready, the first seeding of annuals and “nurse” or cover crop seeds can be installed. The required native seed mix for the area cannot be installed at this time. Beginning in October and through February, the native seed mix can be sown. If the soil bed was not ready earlier in the year and this is the first seed sowing for the area, the cover crop and annual seeds can be sown at the same time as the native seeds. Sowing seeds: Seeding should be done only during periods when the ground may be traversed with equipment without rutting or placing seed at depths over one quarter inch. Seed should be sown in a grid pattern, spreading half the seed mixture over the entire area in one direction then spreading the other half over the same area, in a perpendicular direction. Seed can be sown on snow, although some seed may be eaten by birds. During winter freezes and thawing, seeds sown on the surface work their way into the soil to the proper depth. For areas less than 20,000 square feet: Seed sowing can be done by hand if the basin or buffer is less than 20,000 s.f. excluding filter bed areas, which shall be plug planted per Chapter One. Page | 5 For areas over 20,000 square feet: Cultipacker type seeders (Brillion) or no-till seed drills (Truax or Great Plains) specifically designed for the seeding of native grasses and forbs must be used. The seeding depth must be set to provide a final seed depth of one quarter inch or less. Prior to starting work, all seeding equipment must be calibrated and adjusted to sow seeds at the proper rate. Equipment shall be operated in a manner to ensure complete coverage of the area. This equipment plants the seed in rows by cutting slits into the soil and planting the seed at the proper distance, and depth. No-till drills cause minimal soil disturbance which results in less weed seed germination. If soil conditions are too wet or slopes are too steep for drilling, the broadcasting of seed is acceptable on exposed soil only. If seed is broadcast, it must be mixed with an equal amount of inert filter (such as perlite, sand, vermiculite, ground corn cobs) to enable an even distribution of seed. Mix ratios of seed and inert filters at 1:1 or 2:1 of filter to seed. A mechanical broadcast seeder, such as Truax Seed Slinger, may be used. Fluffy seed will not go through a traditional gravity flow seeder. Seed should be broadcast in two applications of half the seed, where the second application of seed overlaps the previous application in a grid pattern. Broadcast seeded areas should be raked, rolled or dragged perpendicular to the slope within 24 hours after seeding, or as soon as site conditions permit. The use of compaction wheels on the seed drill is acceptable. Hydroseeding is not acceptable. Seed drills may be borrowed from various state agencies or hired through a landscape contractor that specializes in prairie seeding. To learn how to borrow and use a no-till seed drill, contact your local Missouri Department of Conservation office to locate the Private Land Conservationist in your county. Erosion Control Mats Erosion control mats are an important component of seeding a detention basin or a stream buffer. Without them, uniform seed-soil contact can be compromised and costly seed is lost. Because establishing a thorough cover of native vegetation from seed may take 2-3 years, it is important that the erosion control mat be rated for similar longevity. However, care must be taken in selecting an erosion control mat because longer life erosion control mats typically are more tightly woven, which may impede seedling germination. MSD recommends a wood shavings mat (Curlex #1 or Curlex #2 or equivalent) to be laid over seed placed from the bottom of the basin (or normal water level) and up to the 1-yr ponding elevation. Coir fiber blankets are recommended for establishing stream buffers, up to the bankfull elevation, and where more than 100’ of overland flow is upgradient (uphill) of the seedbed. Outside of these areas, and where slopes are steeper than 10:1, either a coir fiber blanket or (lighter and less expensive) straw blanket (North American Green S75 or equivalent) should be laid over seed and anchored into prepared soil. Erosion Control Mats Type Brand name Description Wood shavings mat Curlex® #1 or Curlex® #2 in areas of concentrated flow Expands when wet causing the material to adhere to the surface and releases moisture to germinating seeds. Product is entirely biodegradable in two months. Straw mat North American Green® S75® Single Net Straw Blanket The interwoven strands can move independently of each other providing better moisture absorption, flexibility, and conformance with the soil surface. Decomposes in one year. Coir fiber North American Green® C125® Blanket Intermediate weight coconut based product with a rated longevity of 24 months. Typical applications include high flow areas and shorelines. Page | 6 Germination: Prairie seed begins to germinate in April and continues through June. Some germination even occurs the next spring. Seedlings may be difficult to see because of their small size and the annual weed competition. A seedling identification guide is available through the Natural Resources Conservation Service and images can be found at: http://www.plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/pubs/mopmcpu6313.pdf Vegetation Establishment Post planting establishment practices for three full growing seasons are critical to the success of seeded projects. Fast-growing annual and biennial weeds can shade out slower growing native forbs, grasses and sedges. Common biennial weeds include Queen Anne's lace, bull and Canada thistle and curly dock. Common annual weeds include moth mullein, fleabane, mare's tail, foxtail grass, chicory, ragweed, lambsquarters, mustard and smartweed. The forthcoming Chapter Three will contain information regarding weed management and identification. Year one: Control weeds by keeping them mowed to a height of 6-12 inches throughout the first growing season. Most prairie seedlings are less than 6 inches tall in their first growing season and are seldom damaged by mowing. Do not allow weeds to get over 12 inches before cutting because tall weeds will shade out small prairie seedlings and long clippings can smother small seedlings. Keeping weeds cut back the first year also prevents production of more weed seeds that could become a problem in the future. Pulling weeds in year one can cause problems because prairie seedlings are small the first year and are easily pulled up with the weeds and the disturbed soil can expose new weed seeds. However, if you know how to identify young weeds, it is safe to pull them, as long as you do not disturb nearby prairie seedlings. To remove large weeds, cut them off at the base and remove any seed heads from the site. Year two: If weeds are a problem, mow them at a height of 12 inches since prairie seedlings will be taller the second year. If biennials are a problem, mow them at 12 inches when they are in full bloom. This should kill them or set them back severely. It may be desirable to re-seed areas that are thinly covered by plants or bare. Equipment: String trimmers work well on projects less than 20,000 square feet as tractor-driven mowers are needed for larger areas. Adjust mower to cut higher than 6 inches. Where lawn mowers are the only available or size-appropriate machine, set the mower deck to highest setting (this in normally 4-5 inches). Seeding and Vegetation Establishment Schedule Summary March - September If BMP soil bed is ready during this time, install first seeding consisting of cover crop and annuals only. Required native seed mix may only be seeded October – February. October - February Sow native seed mix. Include cover crop and annuals if first seed sowing. March – May Seed mix germinates. Survey seedlings to determine germination success. 80% cover and 60% species survival is required. Begin mowing annual weeds. Do not let weeds grow over 12 inches. June - September Continue mowing weeds as needed. Do not let weeds grow over 12 inches. Year 2 If required seeding success is not met, over-seed October through February. Continue mowing if annual weeds continue to dominate. Year 3 Mow or burn annually in late winter or early spring (January-March). Page | 7 First year prairie receiving mowing, left. Established prairie receiving annual late winter mowing, right. Long-term maintenance: After year three, a late winter or early spring burn or mowing is recommended once every year or two to set back trees and shrubs. Standing prairie plants are full of over-wintering insects and provide food and cover for winter birds. It may be desirable to sow more seed or plant seedlings to maintain or increase species diversity. Chapter Three will contain information on weed management and weed identification for established native plant areas, because yearly monitoring of weeds is important so that they do not become a problem. Educational Signage Simple educational signage goes a long way to promote public acceptance of native plantings. In the early potentially “awkward” years, signs simply indicating “Native prairie restoration in progress” help the public understand that a process is at work. More complex signs can be used to raise awareness of particular plant species or the function of the stormwater basin or buffer. Signage can be particularly helpful adjacent to a public facility like a trail or a public building such as a school or library. Signage can also help promote the “green” image of a private business or local government. Page | 8 2. Resources Examples of Reconstructed Prairies in the St. Louis Area (prairies created from agricultural fields, lawns, roadsides, and construction sites) Shaw Nature Reserve http://www.shawnature.org/ Missouri Botanical Garden http://www.mobot.org/hort/gardens/kemper/prairie/index.shtml Powder Valley Nature Center http://mdc.mo.gov/regions/st-louis/powder-valley-conservation-nature-center The Green Center http://www.thegreencenter.org/ Forest Park, Kennedy Woods Prairie-Savanna http://www.treeswallow.com/fp/savanna/index.html Weldon Spring Conservation Area , Howell Island Prairie http://cbc.audubon.org/iba/viewSiteProfile.do?siteId=2615&navSite=state Erb Crossing Subdivision, Newton Terrace and Arbor Green Pointe intersection Hawkins Glen Subdivision, 4366 Hawkins Glen Way Related Links: Missouri Dept. of Conservation Grow Native! www.grownative.org Wild Ones Natural Landscapers www.for-wild.org The Missouri Prairie Foundation http://www.moprairie.org Local Ecotype Seed http://www.for-wild.org/download/LocalEcotypeBrochure.pdf American Prairie Foundation www.americanprairie.org The Tallgrass Prairie in Illinois http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/~kenr/tallgrass.html http://www.ecologicalrestoration.info/ Prairie Crossing Housing Development http://www.prairiecrossing.com/pc/site/about-us.html Diary of a Prairie Restoration http://www.illinoisraptorcenter.org/diarydirectory.html Prairies for Children http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/ce/eek/nature/habitat/whatprai.htm Missouri Native Grasses http://mdc.mo.gov/landwater-care/plant-management/native-plants/establishing- native-warm-season-grasses Using Local Seeds in Prairie Restoration - Data Support the Paradigm (PDF) Bibliography: The Tallgrass Restoration Handbook: For Prairies, Savannas, and Woodlands, by Stephen Packard and Cornelia F. Mutel, editors. 1997. Society for Ecological Restoration by Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 2009-1148. xxxii + 463 pages Restoring the Tallgrass Prairie: An Illustrated Manual for Iowa and the Upper Midwest by Shirley Shirley. 1994. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City. xiii + 330 pages. Prairies, Forests, and Wetlands: The Restoration of Natural Landscape Communities in Iowa by Janette R. Thompson. 1992. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City. viii + 139 pages. Ecological Restoration edited by Dave Egan, the University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum, University of Wisconsin Press. Subscriptions available on the web: http://www.wisc.edu/wisconsinpress/journals/journals/er.html Prairie Establishment and Landscaping by William E. McClain. 1997. Division of Natural Heritage, Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Springfield, IL Natural Heritage Technical Publication #2. Available on the web: http://dnr.state.il.us/conservation/naturalheritage/prairie/table.htm Prairie Plants and Their Use in the Landscape by Neil Diboll. Article available on the web: http://www.prairienursery.com/NeilsPage/AchWriting/PrairiePlantsUse.htm Common Name Latin Name DRY AREA MIX Grasses/Sedges Andropogon!mares SplitbeardWestern 1-2 1.5 silver z x x x x x x x x x L L 32 Andropogon drginicus Broornsedge 1.2 1.5 orange xxxx z z x z x M L 32 Boutebuacudipendula Sideoatsgrama 1.2 1 tan x x x x x x x x L L 64 Schaachyriumscopadum litllebluesten 2-3 1.5 bronze x x z z x x z x x x x M L L 64 Spaobolus helerdepis Prairie dropseed 23 1.5 tan z x z x x z x x L 16 Forts Asdepiastuberose &Manly milkweed 1-2 1.5 orange x x z x x V M 32 Asteroblongildium Amodio asler 1-3 1.5 lavender z x x x x M 12 Comopsis lanceolala Lanceleaf coreopsis 1.2 1.5 yellow x » » x x x L 20 Echinaceapellida Pale purple conelower 23 1.5 violet x x x x x L 48 RatibWapinnala YellaxlGreyconelower 35 1.5 yellow x z z x x z x M H L 6 Sddaganemoralis Old field goldenrod 48 1.5 yellow z x z x z L L 4 Taiaaureas Golden alexander 13 1.5 yellow x x x x z x M M U 32 Annuals {optional) Chamaeroslafasciculale Partridge pee 13 1 yellow z z x z x x 32 Careopsisendue Plainscon:opsis 2.4 1 yellow x x x x x x 4 Petafoxia allosa Palaloxia 23 2 pink x x x x x 4 Rudbeckia Nria Black-eyed Susan 2-3 1.5 yellow x x z x x z 4 WET AREA MIX Grasses/Sedges Carexannedans Yellaxhuitedsedge 23 1.5 tan x x x x x x x x L 5 Carexgrayi Bur sedge 1.2 1.5 tan x z x x x x x L M 84 Carexmuskingumensis Palm sedge 23 1.5 tan zxxx x xxxxx x M M 8 Carexshoreana Shorts sedge 2 1.5 bluish x x x x x x x x L 32 Chasnanlhiumlatifolium River oals 24 1.5 green x x x x x x z x x x x x H 64 ElymusArginias ViirginiawiWrye 23 1.5 yellow x x x x x x 32 Panicumvirgatum SWashgrass 36 2.5 pink z x x x x x x x x x x x x MMM 16 Sdrpus atrovirens Great green bulrush 23 1.5 green x x x x x x x L 4 Forbs Asdepiasincarnate Marshmilkxeed 3-5 1.5 pink x x xi: x x x M 16 ChelaneMime Rosemrtlehead 34 2 rose/purple x x x x M 2 Eupaloriumcoelestinum Mist Bower, wild ageratum 1.2 1.5 lavender .x x x it; x x x M H 2 Heleniumautur ale Sneezeweed 34 2 yellow x x x x xxx x x M M 4 Irisvirginia Southern blueBagids 23 2 blue x x z x M M 20 Lobeliasiphililica Blue lobelia 2.3 1.5 blue x x x M 2 Ludwigiaalternifolia Seedbox 2.3 1 yellow x x x x x x 2 Penstenondigitalis Smooth beard -longue 2-3 1.5 white x x x x x M M 2 Physoslegia virginiana Obedient Plant 23 1.5 pink % k x x x x x x H 4 Rudbeckiafulgida Orangeconelower 2 2 yellow x x x x x x x x M 8 Annuals {optional) Bidensanslosa Bur marigold 36 1.5 yellow x x x x x H 4 Requirements Local Ecolype Rule: Plants of Missouri or Southern Illinois ecotype are required. PLS means pure lire seed: or seed that has been tested tar purity and viability, This is done by most seed nurseries and should be included in your seed order. Dry denotes an area above the 1 year pending or bank lox elevation. Wel denotes an area Thal is at or below the 1 year pending or bank low elevaloe. Must use a minimum of 6 grass/sedge species and 8 forb species for each BMP. II is recommended that this list be provided to landscape contractors/buyers in case substitutions are required. Section 7: Seed Mix List MSD Seeding Guide Seed: Shorter, less diverse mixes Common Name Latin Name DRY AREAMX Grasses/Sedges AmIrapogm gerardu Bgbtestem 4-6 25 plum x x z x x x A M 32 Ares canadenms Canada veil rye 25 2 green x x K x x 32 Paicum vkgatum SxYdhgmss 38 2.5 pink z X +.�v1 xxxx x x x M M M 16 Schizachynumsmpaman Little bkeslem Men grass 23 35 1.5 1.5 bronze Ian x x x x x x x x N x x x A M L L 64 Soghasbun nukes K x x 16 Sporobdus he'amkp5 Prairie drapseed 23 1.5 Mn ;, .... t. x x x x x x L 16 Forts Astlepas synara Common Wowed 23 1 pink x x x N x M 32 Aster obkngifcFrs Aromaticasta 13 7.5 kaerdar a';ild x x x 12 Baptise ausuafs Blue wad indigo 34 14 3.5 1.5 blue yebw N x x x x x x M 32 Coreapsts lanceolate Lancekalcoreopws x x x L 20 Echinacea pollee Pak purpleconefbwer 23 1.5 vide X 1 x x x L 46 Eryngium yumlfolam Rattlesnala master 45 1,5 green x x x A x x A M L 16 Gnndela lanceolate Gum weed 23 1.5 plow x x x N x, M a Hel'mpas hetianthcrdes Fake sunfrmva 38 3 yefaw x x x x. x 16 Lespedeza mp^.ata Raundheaded bush dam 24 1.5 cream x x A x x x L 16 Leta pycnostachya Pone blazing star 25 1.5 Ileac VI x x x L 16 hknarda fstuksa Wild bergamonl 34 2 pink x X %' xxx x x M M M 4 Raribda pinnate Yelbm'Greycarefkwe 35 1.5 glow x x x x x z x M H L 6 Rudbedoa hma Bkckeyed Susan 23 1.5 yellow x x N N x, x M 4 Sobhgo speciosa Showy goldenrod 23 1.5 yellow x x x x x x x M H L 4 Verbesinaheaanthoides Yebewwugstem 23 1.5 yet* i x X xxx x A M L 16 Verona arkansana Arkansas tmnweed 4-6 3.5 purple . x M S Veronixdmm Opium Culrersroot 47 3 Ake x x x x x N L 1 /raaaurea Golenalerarder 13 1.5 yellow x x x x x x M M U 32 Annuals Optional) Chaneeask lasdcukle Partridge pea 1-3 1 yebw x x x x x x x 32 Coreopssbndwa Plansmreopsa 24 1 plow x x x x x z 4 Palafoxa rabsa Patton' 23 2 pink x N x K x 4 WET AREA MIX Grasses/edges Carexanneaans Yellow Mired sedge 2-3 1.5 tan x x x x x x % x L 5 Carexmuskingumenss Palm sedge 23 1.5 Ian A x x X x x A x N z A M M 6 Carexshomaa Shots sedge 2 1.5 blush x x x x x x x x L 32 Carexfenkd Frank's sedge 3 1.5 Fan x % % x x x % 4 Carexvugimidea Fox sedge 23 1.5 bra x x x xxx L L H 4 Chasmamhium(album Faeroes 24 1.5 green x N N N N. x x x x x x x H 32 Sdrpusetrovies Great green bullmsh 23 1.5 green r a w x x x x L 4 Spadina pecenak Prairie cadgrass 45 2.5 green z x A x x x x N H H 6 Forts Amscyradkack Shining Kreger 2-3 2.5 Xbue afc, at: x x % x x L H 32 Asdepasinmmate MarsA milkweed 24 2 pink ; i; �_, ^_'r; ;, A x x M M 16 Auer novaeangbae New England aster 34 2 uskl - x x x x L H 4 Eupatoriumpedlatum Common baeset 23 1.5 wide x x x x x x M B Irsvxgnka Southern blueflag ira 23 2 blue x x x A M M 20 Hibkaskskarpus Rose maiow 4-5 2 wfiie ©N x x x x x M 16 lobelia cardnarts Cardinal beer 2.3 1.5 red % x % N % x L M U 1 Ludwiga akemifola Seedbox 23 1 plow x x x A x A 1 Moots ringens' Allegehny monkey flower 1.2 1.5 knelt x x M 2 Penstemon dgXate Smooth beard -league 23 1.5 waXe % x x % x M M 4 Rudbeckafuylda Orangemne6owe 2 2 Mellow x X X X. x A x N M 6 Rudbeae sublarenlosa Sweet mneflaver 34 2 plow x x x x x x x x M 6 Veterehasata Blue vervain 28 2 amok x % M 2 Annuals (optional) Bites amtosa Bur margdd I34I13I PlOW I I x x I N I x x H 4 Requirements Local Ecotype Rule: Plank of hkssoun or Southem roes ecotype are required. PLS mean pure tee seed, or seed thal has teen rested fa punly and vabiley This sdone by most seed mxseiesand shoot be touted in your seed order Dry denotes an area above the 1 year poem or bank Sow elevation. Wet denotes an area that is at or below the 1 yearpondeg or bank kw elevation. (dust use a minimum of 6 grass/sedge species and 6 forb species Iaeach BMP. It is recommended giants ld be provided to landscape conbadtrstuyes n ease subsbtuldns are required. Section 7: Seed Mix List MSD Seeding Guide Seed: Taller, more diverse mixes MSD Landscape Guide for Stormwater Best Management Practices 22